Training and Development 1
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
7. Compare and contrast internal and external validity. 7.1 Identify future trends that will affect training. 7.2 Explain how benchmarking can help determine if change is necessary. 7.3 Discuss the future skills and competencies of trainers.
10. Analyze the results of a training needs analysis (TNA) to determine the content, methods, and
instructional media necessary for a given training requirement. 10.1 Define re-engineering and explain the process. 10.2 Discuss the key issues in implementing change.
Reading Assignment Chapter 11: The Future of Training and Development
Unit Lesson What are some of the future trends that might affect training?
Greater use of new technologies for training delivery
Increased demand for training for virtual work arrangements
Increased emphasis on speed in design, focus in content, and use of multiple delivery methods
Increased emphasis on capturing and sharing intellectual capital
Increased use of true performance support
Increased emphasis on performance analysis and learning for business enhancement
Increased use of training partnerships and outsourcing training
A change model perspective to training and development There will be an increase in the use of new technologies for several reasons:
The cost of new technologies will decrease.
Technology will help employees to better serve customers and generate new business.
It can reduce training costs.
It allows trainers to build the desirable features of a learning environment into training.
Training can be delivered at any place and time. Based on how quickly technology is growing, there is an increased demand for training in virtual work arrangements. The location, organization structure, and employment relationships are not limiting factors in virtual work arrangements. There are two major training challenges—companies must invest in training delivery methods that facilitate digital collaboration, and teams and employees must be provided with tools needed for finding knowledge. There is an increased emphasis on the speed in the design, content, and use of multiple delivery methods. Rapid instructional design (RID) is a group of techniques that allows training to be built more quickly and efficiently. Although there are a number of principles that are important, there are two principles in RID that bear pointing out. Instructional content and process are developed independent of each other and having resources devoted to design and delivery of instruction can be reallocated as appropriate. The focus tends to
UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE
The Future of Training
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be more on accomplishment and performance than anything. The bottom line is these are systems of learning and not instruction, which is opposite the traditional school of thought. There is a great increase on emphasizing, capturing, and sharing intellectual capital. Sharing knowledge and contributing to intellectual capital will become more common as collaborative social networking technology and Web 2.0 tools make this simpler to implement. This requires that the trainers of tomorrow be technologically literate. The training of tomorrow will increase the use of true performance support and will utilize embedded learning, which occurs on the job as needed. It involves collaboration and non-learning technologies and is strongly integrated with knowledge management. This may become increasingly prevalent as companies cannot have employees spend hours on learning that is not directly relevant to their current job demands. It is neither time nor cost effective, so employees will have options in the learning they will receive. They may be presented with a short learning episode embedded in their work and be alerted whenever new learning episodes are needed and available. They will now have direct connections to the experts continuously because they are connected online. They will also have simulations for guidance and correction. The technology available for collaboration includes virtual classroom software and asynchronous tools that are currently being used today. There will be an increased emphasis on performance analysis and learning for business enhancement. The performance analysis approach identifies performance gaps or deficiencies and examines training as one possible solution for the business units. This is done to make it easier for training departments to focus on interventions related to performance improvement, provide support for high- performance work systems, and develop systems for training administration, development, and delivery that reduce costs and increase employees’ access to learning. Training departments’ responsibilities will include a greater focus on systems that employees can use for information on an as-needed basis. In order to make use of training partnerships and outsourcing of training, training departments will increase partnerships with academic institutions to provide basic skills training and to develop customized programs. They will also need to leverage utilizing an Application Service Provider (ASP), which is a company that rents out access to software for a specific application. Organizations will begin to look at training and development from more of a change model perspective in the future to enhance and expand on their current training and delivery methods. In order for these new training or development practices to be successfully implemented, organizations will need to communicate the change from the top down and the structures must support the change. Employees have a responsibility as well. They need to understand the reasons for change and accept them, have the skills needed to implement the change, and see managers and employees in power positions support the change. The steps in the change process that need to take place are:
Identify the problem or opportunity and create a sense of urgency.
Identify possible solutions.
Communicate and collaborate for buy-in.
Choose and announce the action as soon as possible.
Execute and create short-term wins.
Follow up, reevaluate, and modify. All of the above steps are unnecessary if no change is required. Thus, a key component is to determine whether or not change is truly necessary. From a systems perspective, companies and trainers need to understand both the internal and external environments, understand the effectiveness and efficiency of current training practices, and be aware of other companies’ practices to ensure that their training practices are the best possible. They also have to review benchmarking, which provides information about other companies’ practices and consider process reengineering, which provides information about the effectiveness and efficiency of training systems within the company. Once all of the analysis has been completed, the implementation process begins. As with any change, there are always challenges that seem to arise during the process. To minimize issues, organizations utilize organization development (OD) and change management (CM) methods. OD is a planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral science knowledge and techniques to improve companies’ effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problem-solving capabilities. Change management is
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the process of ensuring that new interventions, such as training practices, are accepted and used by employees and managers. The change management process involves overcoming resistance to change, managing the transition to the new practice, shaping political dynamics, and using training to make change stick. Along with OD and CM, other change interventions are employed as well. Survey feedback is the process of collecting information about employees’ attitudes and perceptions using a survey, summarizing the results, and providing employees with feedback to stimulate discussion, identify problems, and plan actions to solve problems. Process consultation utilizes a consultant to work with managers or other employees to help them understand and take action to improve specific events that occur at work. Group interventions involve employees from different parts of the organization, customers, and other stakeholders from outside. It brings together the participants in an off-site setting to discuss problems and opportunities or to plan change.