TIMEMAPPER ENTRY 4 (ENCYCLOPEDIA STYLE) CAREFULLY READ ATTACHED DOC.
Welcome to your TimeMapper! Use the following prompts to drive your thinking:
- What are you curious about with regards to your region?
- What are your initial thoughts or preconceived notions about your region?
- What would someone studying world history need to know about your region?
- YOUR TOPIC IS “Major Cultural, Religious, and/or Indigenous Movements/Figures (1750 – Present) Choose ONE! FROM THE READING AS LONG AS IT’S BASED FROM THE USA OR CANADA“
- Remember: This project is not about writing national histories, but rather how your region figures into the broader web of global history.
CAREFULLY READ THE ATTACHED DOC FOR CLEAR INSTRUCTIONS AND AN EXAMPLE TO FOLLOW.
Welcome to your TimeMapper! Use the following prompts to drive your thinking:
· What are you curious about with regards to your region?
· What are your initial thoughts or preconceived notions about your region?
· What would someone studying world history need to know about your region?
· Remember: This project is not about writing national histories, but rather how your region figures into the broader web of global history.
NOTE: The entries that your group decides to write are completely up to your group. In other words, there are not any expectations about which entries should be included. Your group must decide what you think is essential to know about your region in relation to world history. Example is noted below, highlighted in yellow.
After your discussion, determine which group member will write which entries based on that week’s topic:
Week 2 Entry Topic:
YOUR TOPIC IS ” In Mass. there was the Pequot War and King Philip’s War which had a great impact on the local indigenous population.”
Each entry submitted will include the following:
1. The title of the event, individual, movement, etc.
2. Time Period by year (e.g. 1750-1820)
3. A short 500-word encyclopedia-style entry. (See below)
4. A link to an image from the web that I can input into your entry.
5. A one-sentence description of the image.
6. Place (e.g. India or London, UK)
7. GPS Coordinates for your entry (see video tutorial below). If the entry is not very specific to a particular location (say India more generally rather than New Delhi), just provide the GPS coordinates for centrally located spot in that area/country.
For example entry:
1. The Anglo-Irish War
3. (NOTE: this is 1000 words, not 500 words like your entries) The Anglo-Irish War, or Irish War of Independence, was a guerilla war fought between the Irish Republican Army (a military organization established in 1919) and British-backed police forces from January 1919 to July 1921. The war was a culmination of a decades-long struggle for Irish independence and resulted in the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921). The Treaty was a compromise settlement that separated the three southern provinces of Ireland (Leinster, Munster, and Connacht) into the Irish Free State with dominion status (self-governing autonomy within the British Empire), while most of the northern province of Ulster remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty led to the Irish Civil War (June 1922-May 1923) that split Irish Republicans between pro- and anti-treaty forces, with the pro-treaty forces emerging victorious. The Anglo-Irish War was the climax of a series of events that began after the turn of the twentieth century. After two failed attempts in 1886 and 1893, the Irish Parliamentary Party (the dominant Irish Nationalist political party in the British House of Commons until 1918) led by John Redmond (1856-1918) finally succeeded in passing a Home Rule Bill (a measure of self-government within the British Empire) through Parliament in 1914. The enactment of the Bill, however, never occurred due to the outbreak of World War One. Redmond cautioned Irish nationalists to exercise patience and even called for Irishmen to serve in the British army as a sign of good faith. At the same time, a new political party called Sinn Féin (Irish Gaelic for ‘ourselves’) started by journalist Arthur Griffith (1872-1922) in 1905, began to gain credibility with the Irish public. Though unpopular and marginal at first, Sinn Féin rose to prominence in during the 1910s as its message self-reliance, Gaelic pride, and complete separation from Britain began to attract Irish nationalists dissatisfied with the Irish Party’s policy of moderation. There were other factors that led to the rise of Sinn Féin. The failed attempt by Irish Republicans to establish a republic during Easter week of 1916 (known as the Easter Rising) was not initially popular with the Irish public. However, the response from the British, which included the imposition of martial law, the arrest of nearly 4,000 Irish citizens, and the swift execution of sixteen of the rebel leaders, helped to radicalize Irish nationalists against British rule. Furthermore, the ill-advised British plan to impose conscription (forced military service) on the Irish in 1918 increased support for complete separation from the United Kingdom. The General Election results of 1918 were revealing. Sinn Féin won 73 out of 105 parliamentary seats, whereas the Irish Party only won six, effectively ending their dominance of Irish politics. Sinn Féin did not take their seats at Westminster (the home of British Parliament) and instead formed the Dáil Éireann (Irish Parliament) and declared an independent Ireland in January 1919. Eamon de Valera (1882-1975), president of the Dáil and the Republic, embarked on a tour of the United States to gain international recognition and funds for the Republic. In the meantime, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) began to engage in skirmishes with the Irish Volunteers. The encounter that is often viewed as the beginning of the war was the murder of two members of the RIC in Solohedbeag, County Tipperary, in January 1919 by the Irish Volunteers. The Anglo-Irish War was, in essence, a guerilla war with much of the violence occurring in isolated pockets throughout the country. The Irish Volunteers, now calling themselves the Irish Republican Army, or IRA, lacked a strong central command and consisted of semi-independent units organized into “flying columns” that would carry out isolated ambushes and rely on the local population to hide them afterwards. For example, Irish Republican Michael Collins (1890-1922) led a unit in Dublin that specifically focused on assassinations of high-level British officials and officers. The British response to the insurgency was to recruit two groups of reinforcements for the RIC to assist in putting down the rebellion. The first group was known as the “Black and Tans” (named for the mismatched uniforms they wore), and the second group was known as the Auxiliaries, which consisted mostly of former members of the British Army. These groups were undisciplined and engaged in illegal acts such as stealing, murder, and burning down homes. Their behavior, coupled with the ambushes of the IRA, led to the Anglo-Irish War becoming essentially a war of retaliation with each side trading blows and costing hundreds of lives. In the end, over 1,200 people were killed throughout the war. After over a year of fighting, the IRA, despite enjoying increased public support, knew it could not sustain the war forever. The British had more manpower, but the war (and the manner in which it was fought) was unpopular with the British public, and there were growing calls to end the violence. Both sides agreed to a truce on July 11, 1921, and the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed on December 6, 1921. The signing of the treaty split Irish Republicans. Some, including Griffith and Collins, argued that it was the best settlement they could get without a prolonged war with Britain that they would likely lose. Others, such as de Valera, argued against continued association with Britain. This tension would manifest itself in the ensuing Irish Civil War and claim thousands of more lives. Although the Treaty created the Irish Free State as a dominion and established Northern Ireland as a self-governing territory within the United Kingdom, Ireland would not officially become a republic outside of the British Empire or Commonwealth until 1949. Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom to this day.
5. Burning of Cork by British Forces
7. 53°21’00.2″N, 6°15’41.4″W
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