Wacquant, L. J., & Wilson, W. J. (1989). The cost of racial and class exclusion in the inner city. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 501(1), 8-25. [18 pages] 

  1. According to Wacquant and Wilson, what are the main structural shifts that explain the marginalization of black communities? [RC]
     
  2. What is Wacquant and Wilson’s definition of a “process of hyperghettoization”?
     
  3. In Wacquant and Wilson’s account, what is the “class structure” of ghetto neighborhoods?
     
  4. According to Wacquant and Wilson, what is the relationship between joblessness and expectations in ghetto neighborhoods?
     
  5. According to Wacquant and Wilson’s data, what is the structure of social capital of residents of ghetto neighborhoods? [RC]
     

Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 17-59 [43 pages] 

  1. According to Massey and Denton’s data, what was the level black-white segregation in northern cities around 1860? [RC]
     
  2. From Massey and Denton’s point of view, what were the wo developments that help explain the creation of ghettos after 1900? [RC]
     
  3. Following Massey and Denton, in which ways ethnic enclaves were different from black ghettos?
     
  4. Why do Massey and Denton suggest that ghetto acquired a “class gradient” during the 1920s and 1930s?
    increasing their share of the population as one moved from the core toward the periphery of the ghetto.” (p. 39)
     
  5. According to Massey and Denton, what was the role of the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) in the reproduction of racial segregation during the 1930s and 1940s? [RC]