Research Rough Draft

Answer the prompts in the “Guided Peer Review” outline below to analyze the “Colony Collapse Disorder” essay and upload your document when finished.

Guided Peer Review

1.         Read instructions all the way through first.

2.         Read the essay all the way through without making notes or editing.

3.         Write a brief summary of the essay in your own words.

4.         What is the author’s main point?  What is the one thing he or she is trying to argue, explain,  or show?

5.         Evaluate the effectiveness of the intro and conclusion.  Does the intro effectively capture your attention?  Does it clearly include the essay’s main point?  Does the conclusion provide a satisfying ending?

6.         Evaluate the use of transitions.  Does the author provide effective connecting sentences and phrases between points?  Is the author showing the relationship of the essay’s sections to each other?

7.         Evaluate the author’s use of evidence.  Does the writer use:

A.        specific examples

B.        quotations from credible sources

C.        information or opinion from experts

D.        statistics from credible sources (mark sources that you think are not very credible)

Does the writer use a variety of these?  Do they rely too much on one type?

Do some sections rely too much on one source?

8.         Evaluate the essay’s development of ideas.  Do some sections need more evidence to support their main idea?

9.         Explain what the strongest or most enjoyable section of the essay was.

10.       Explain what the essay needs to do to get better.

11.       Evaluate the author’s use of the correct APA format.  Is their essay correctly formatted?  Do they properly cite their sources in the text?  Is their references page correct?

Colony Collapse Disorder

The honey bee has served the needs of man for hundreds of years. This is unlike any other insect. Beekeepers have been raising honey bees for centuries in order to harvest their honey, and for the reliance of pollinating their crops. One-third of the world’s crops that are consumed by man, are pollinated by honey bees. These hard little workers can visit up to 2,000 flowers in a single day. The honey bee can only carry about fifty to one hundred flowers worth of pollen, so they return to the hive after filling up. They are hard workers and that has made them into valuable tools over the past couple hundred year. Over the years the honey bees that we rely so much on have begun to disappear without a trace and no one can provide an answer as to why. The exact reason on why the bees are disappearing is unclear, but new research on insecticides and pesticides may provide the answers.

For thousands of years bees have played an important part in the ecosystem. Bees do so much more than just offer the addition of honey. They offer an economic service that equals to 15 billion dollars in food crops. They are responsible for the pollination of one-third of the world’s food crops. Some crops would consist of almonds or citrus. Almonds would be an example of a plant that almost solely survive on honey bees pollination services. Almond farmers along with the farmers of ninety other various crop plants have to buy and import bee colonies. The importation of these colonies gives the farmers reassurance that their crops will be pollinated. This makes honey bees one of the most economic pollinators in the world. If the honey bees cease to exist then these crops along with many other species of plants face the danger of extinction.

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is defined by Kaplan (2012) as the disappearance of most, if not all honeybees in a colony. Beekeepers are checking on their hives and finding empty hives and no bodies from the dead honey bees. Kaplan (2012) explains how the CCD began to take surface in the United States in the year 2006. Strong losses in the colonies were beginning to be reported during this time. A thirty to ninety percent loss was being reported. With this also came the realization that they did not yet have an answer on to why it becoming a growing concern.

The usage of Insecticides and Pesticides is growing more and more every day. Studies have shown the extent to which the chemicals, from insecticides and pesticides, affect the natural foraging pattern of the honey bee. The foraging pattern of the bee consists of learning behaviors and navigation. Navigation is a key part to the honey bees’ survival. If they were unable to find their way to the flower, the bee would starve as well as the colony and this would eventually lead to death. They also use their navigation in order to find their way back to the hive. Not being able to navigate back to the hive would also lead to death due to the cold from being away from the colony and also again starvation. The learning behavior is what helps the navigation. It helps create the navigation behavior. The lowering of these behaviors puts the honey bees into collapse risk.

When discussing the impact of insecticides and pesticides on CCD, many controversies arise. The worlds’ population is growing faster than ever. Along with this fast growing population comes a fast growing demand for food. The demand from the agricultural world is larger than ever, so the closer the agricultural world can get to a one hundred percent yield the better. Some say that farmers have made it a common practice to use pesticide and insecticide, and in some cases this practice can help to save up to 1/5 of the total production. It has also come to attention that in some cases higher dosages do create more insurance and also get rid of the pests, but this also gets rid of the insects that are helping the crop such as the honey bee. This brings harm to the colonies because they are constantly being exposed to the chemicals. Suryanarayanan and Kleinman (2013) states that U.S growers rent an estimated 2 million beehives from beekeepers each year to pollinate their crops. This shows how valuable bees are to the agricultural world. They also state beekeepers claim on how pesticides and insecticides are the major reason on why CCD is happening. The beekeepers would like for the use of pesticides and insecticides to be eliminated altogether. On the opposing side the beekeepers’’ claims are rejected. Suryanarayanan and Kleinman (2013) explain that the rejection is due to the lack of conclusive evidence. When we live in a time where demands are so high in the agriculture world, it is hard to come up with enough concrete evidence to prove that insecticides and pesticides are the sole reason of CCD. Farmers openly admit to using insecticide and in some cases in large quantities, but not nearly enough to be the main contributor to CCD. There are so many other factors that have been linked to CCD. This also plays a factor on why they can’t entirely blame insecticides and pesticides.

Insecticides and Pesticides are among the many things that have been linked back to CCD. It is an issue that is no longer going unnoticed, and constant efforts are being made in order to tackle it. The honey bee is not just another insect flying around your backyard, but instead an essential part to our ecosystem. We must become aware of the growing problem of CCD. When we become aware can really begin research to find an exact cause. Then not only will the bees look towards a healthier future but all the inhabitants of earth as well.

 

 

References

 

Kaplan, K. J. (2012). Colony collapse disorder. Agriculture Research60(6), 4-8. Retrieved from

EBSCO Mega File.

Suryanarayanan, S., & Kleinman, D. L. (2013). Be(e)coming experts: the controversy over

insecticides in the honey bee colony collapse disorder. Social Studies of Science(Sage

Publications, Ltd.)43(2), 215-240. doi: 10.1177/0306312712466186