Research Paper – Final Paper Instructions
Using the information and feedback gained from the Topic, Annotated Bibliography, and Working Outline, you will create a 10–12-page Research Paper on your approved topic. Your title page, abstract, and reference page do not count toward the required 10–12 pages. Also, you may not copy-and-paste your annotated bibliography into your final paper. At least 10 peer-reviewed journal articles must be used to support your paper, and current APA format must be adhered to. Review the “Research Paper Example” document provided to encure you are formatting your paper correctly.
After completing your final draft, submit your Research Paper using the SafeAssign link provided in Module/Week 7. SafeAssign will help you judge the originality of your paper and avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism includes: a) failing to cite another’s work when you have used that person’s ideas, b) copying another’s work or just changing a word or two in a passage or phrase (even if you cite it), c) copying another’s work without appropriate quotation citation, or d) copying your own work without appropriate citation.
You may submit the paper 1 time via the draft link to check your score and make revisions, but only until the final due date.
Running head: SAMPLE PAPER 1
A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting
Per the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA; 6th edition), double-space the
entire paper (p. 229), except with charts or tables. Do not add any extra spacing. Use Times New Roman, 12-point font. Do not use bold except for headings as necessary (see page 62 of your APA manual).
Margins are set for 1″ on top, bottom, and sides. All page references will be to the APA manual, 6th edition. Add two spaces after punctuation at the end of each sentence, except in the reference list, for the sake of
readability (pp. 87-88). The header on the cover page is different from the headers on the rest of the paper.
Only the cover page header includes the words Running head (without the italics; p. 41). The header is flush
left but the page numbers are flush right (see bottom of p. 229). Make sure the header font is the same as the
rest of the paper. Handouts on how to format the cover page (as well as other handouts) are available on the
Online Writing Center’s webpage: http://www.liberty.edu/index.cfm?PID=17176, and a superb YouTube
video demonstration that provides visualized step-by-step instructions for setting a paper up in proper APA
format is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUjhwGmhDrI
Note: Comments inside boxes are not part of the formatting of the paper. Section or page number references
to the APA manual are denoted in parentheses throughout. Most citations within the body of this paper are
fictional, for instructional purposes only, but are also included in the reference list for illustrative purposes of
correlating citations in the body of the paper with resources in the reference list.
. Note: Center the following information in the top half of the page: title, your name, and school name (2.01, p.
23; 41). Some professors require the course title and section, the instructor’s name, and the date; add those on
the lines beneath the required title page information. Do not use contractions in formal papers—in either the
title or the body of the paper (i.e., use “do not” rather than “don’t”). Titles should include no more than 12
words. Titles use upper and lowercase letters (i.e., “title case;” 20.1, p. 23; see also 4.15 on pp. 101-102).
Prepared by Christy Owen, Brian Aunkst, and Dr. Carmella O’Hare. Last updated June 28, 2016.
SAMPLE PAPER 2
Begin your abstract at the left margin (2.04 on p. 27; see also p. 229). This is the only paragraph
that should not be indented. Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be
between 150–250 words (p. 27). It should not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should
be a tight, concise summary of the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan
to accomplish in your paper. Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your
sentences to say what you want to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract
style: There are many similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and
the AACC. Both include similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs
significantly in the areas of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an
Abstract” at http://www.liberty.edu/academics/graduate/writing/?PID=12268 This is just now at
168 words, so take a moment to eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of your paper as
a movie, and the abstract as the summary of the plot that you would share to draw people’s
interest into wanting to come and see your movie. Same thing: you want to really hook and
intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Still only at 221 words here; remember to try
to stay under 250, unless your professor advises otherwise. The keywords noted below highlight
the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database; they should be formatted
as shown (indented ½”, with the word “Keywords” in italics, and the few key words in normal
print, separated by a comma.
Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms
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A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting
The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body. It should be
centered, unbolded, and in title case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should
begin with a capital letter) — see figure 2.1 on p. 42 and 4.15 on pp. 101-102. You can either
give a brief introductory paragraph below that or go straight into a Level 1 heading. In APA
format, the Introduction never has a heading (simply begin with an introductory paragraph
without the word “Introduction”); see first paragraph of section 2.05 on page 27, as well as the
first sentence under the bolded headings on page 63 of your APA manual (American
Psychological Association [APA], 2010). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to
denote an abbreviation within parentheses (third bullet under 4.10). Write out acronyms the first
time mentioned, such as American Psychological Association for APA, and then use the
acronym throughout the body of the paper (4.22; note the section on underuse, however, at the
top of p. 107).
Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing
Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format
papers correctly using the sixth edition of the APA manual (APA, 2010). However, the Liberty
University Online Writing Center’s mission includes helping students learn how to be
autonomous, proficient writers, and thus this sample paper is designed so it cannot be used as a
template for inserting the correct parts. For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second
person (you, your), but third person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First
person (I, me, we, us, our) is not generally permitted in scholarly papers. Students should refrain
from using first or second person in academic courses (even though the APA manual appears to
encourage this in other writing venues) unless the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as
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in the case of personal reflection sections or life histories). Though some written assignments
will not require an abstract, understand that APA generally requires one unless otherwise stated
in your assignment instructions or grading rubric.
Heading Levels—Level 1
This sample paper uses primarily one level of headings (Level 1), so each heading
presented herein is centered and in boldface. APA style, however, has five heading levels, which
will be demonstrated briefly for visual purposes. See page 62 of your APA manual (APA, 2010)
if employing more than one level. Level 1 headings are bolded and in title case — capitalize
each major word (usually those with four or more letters), including hyphenated compound
words. Four-Year Pilot Study on Attachment Disorders, and Self-Awareness of Pollen are
examples of headings with compound words. Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the) in headings
unless they begin a title or follow a colon.
Level 2 Heading
Level 2 headings are bolded, in title case, and left-justified. The supporting information
is posed in standard paragraph form beneath it. Never use only one of any level of heading. You
must use two or more of any level you use, though not every paper will require more than one
Level 3 heading. Is bolded, indented ½”, in sentence case (only the first word should
begin with a capital letter in most cases), and ends with a period. Add two spaces, then begin
typing your content on the same line, as presented in this paragraph.
Level 4 heading. Same as Level 3, except italicized, too.
Level 5 heading. Same as Level 4, but unbolded. Despite heavy writing experience, this
author has never used Level 5 headings.
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Annotated Bibliographies, Tables of Contents, and Outlines
A few requirements in various assignments are not addressed in the APA manual, such as
outlines, tables of content, and annotated bibliographies. APA does not regulate every type of
paper, including those forms. In those cases, follow your professor’s instructions and the
grading rubric for the content and format of the outline or annotations, and use standard APA
formatting for all other elements (such as running head, title page, body, reference list, 1″
margins, double-spacing, Times New Romans 12-point font, etc.).
That being said, when I organize outlines in APA format, I set my headings up in the
proper levels (making sure there are at least two subheadings under each level), and then I use
those to make the entries in the outline. Level 1 headings become Roman Numbers (I, II, III),
Level 2 headings become capital letters (A, B, C), Level 3 headings become numbers (1, 2, 3),
and Level 4 headings become lowercase letters (a, b, c). Some courses require “working
outlines,” which are designed to have the bones and foundational framework of the paper in
place (such as title page, abstract, body with title and headings, and references), without all the
supporting “meat” that fills out and forms a completed paper
Appendices, if any, are attached after the reference list (see top of p. 230). You must
refer to them in the body of your paper so that your reader knows to look there (see top of p. 39).
The word “Appendix” is singular; use it to refer to individual appendices. I am attaching a
sample Annotated Bibliography as a visual aid in “Appendix A.” You will see that I included
the title “Appendix A” at the top of the page and formatted it in standard APA format beneath
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Crediting Your Sources
Paraphrasing is rephrasing another’s idea in one’s own words. Quoting is using another’s
exact words. Both need to be cited; failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Liberty University
also has a strict policy against a student using the same paper (or portions thereof) in more than
one class or assignment, which it deems “self-plagiarism.” Students who want to cite their own
prior work must cite and reference it just like any other source; see example in Owen (2012).
Include the author(s) and year for paraphrases and the author(s), year, and page or paragraph
number for direct quotes. Page numbers should be used for any printed material (books, articles,
etc.), and paragraph numbers should be used in the absence of page numbers (online articles,
webpages, etc.; 6.05, pp. 171-172). Use p. for one page and pp. (not italicized in your paper) for
more than one. Use para. for one paragraph and paras. (also not italicized in your paper) for two
or more. For example: (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012, pp. 12–13) or (Liberty University, 2015 para.
Section 6.04 of the APA (2010) manual says, “When paraphrasing or referring to an idea
contained in another work, you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number,
especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or
complex text” (p. 171). When naming authors in the text of the sentence itself (called a narrative
citation), use the word “and” to connect them. For example, “Allen, Bacon, and Paul (2011)
contemplated that . . .” Use an ampersand (&) in place of the word “and” in parenthetical
citations and reference lists: (Allen, Bacon, & Paul, 2011).
APA’s (2010) official rule is that you must cite your source every single time you refer to
material you gleaned from it (pp. 15-16). You can vary your sentence structure to include both
narrative and parenthetical citations in order to avoid redundancy. There is, however, an
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unofficial trend amongst some professors who require their students to cite their sources only
once per paragraph (the first time you refer to it, not merely at the end of the paragraph, which
can be interpreted as an afterthought), despite this being in conflict with standard APA
formatting. You will want to clarify which your professor prefers; if in doubt, cite every time.
That being said, APA (2010) has a special rule that excludes the year of publication in
narrative in-text citations (when you name the authors in the text of the sentence itself), after the
first citation in each paragraph … provided that first citation is narrative (and not parenthetical).
It should continue to appear in all parenthetical citations (see sections 6.11 and 6.12, pp. 174-
175). If the first citation in the paragraph is parenthetical, then ALL citations must include the
year. The two examples in 6.11 on pp. 174-175 are subtle, but if you look carefully, you will be
able to discern this for yourself.
If the material you cited was referred to in multiple resources, separate different sets of
authors with semicolons, arranged in the order they appear (alphabetically by the first author’s
last name) in the reference list (Carlisle, n.d.; Prayer, 2015). Periods are placed after the closing
parenthesis, except with indented (blocked) quotes. Quotes that are 40 or more words must be
blocked, with the left margin of the entire quote indented ½ inch. Maintain double-spacing of
block quotes. APA prefers that you introduce quotes, but note that the punctuation falls at the
end of the direct quote, with the page number outside of that (which is contrary to punctuation
for non-blocked quotes). For example, Alone (2008) claims (note that there are no quotation
marks for block quotes, as shown below):
Half of a peanut butter sandwich contains as much bacteria as the wisp of the planet
Mars. Thus, practicality requires that Mrs. Spotiker nibble one bit at a time until she is
assured that she will not perish from ingesting it too quickly. (p. 13)
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Usually quotes within quotes use single quotation marks, but use double quotation marks for
quotes within blocked quotes, since there are no other quotation marks included within. Also
understand that direct quotes should be used sparingly in scholarly writing; paraphrasing is much
preferred in APA format. Only use quotes when changing the wording would change the
original author’s meaning. You cannot simply change one word and omit a second; if you
paraphrase, the wording must be substantially different, but with the same meaning. Regardless,
you would need to cite the resource you took this information from.
Authors with more than one work published in the same year are distinguished by lower-
case letters after the years, beginning with a. For example, Double (2008a) and Double (2008b)
would refer to resources by the same author published in 2008. If there are two different authors
with the same last name but different first names who published in the same year, include the
first initials: Brown, J. (2009) and Brown, M. (2009).
The names of journals, books, plays, and other long works, if mentioned in the body of
the paper, are italicized in title case (4.21). Titles of articles, lectures, poems, chapters, website
articles, and songs should be in title case, encapsulated by quotation marks (4.07). The year of
publication should always follow the author(s)’s name, whether in narrative or parenthetical
format: Perigogn and Brazel (2012) anticipated, or (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012). The page or
paragraph number must follow after the direct quote. Second (2015) asserted that “paper planes
can fly to the moon” (p. 13). You can restate that with a parenthetical citation as: “Paper planes
can fly to the moon” (Second, 2015, p. 13).
Citations in the body of the paper should include only the last names, unless you have
two or more resources authored by individuals with the same last name in the same year, such as
Brown, J. (2009) and Brown, M. (2009) mentioned above. Numbers one through nine must be
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written out in word format, with some exceptions (such as ages—see section 4.32 on page 112 of
your APA manual). Numbers 10 and up must be written out in numerical format: 4.31(a).
Always write out in word format any number that begins a sentence: 4.32(a).
Three or More Authors
When referring to material that comes from three to five authors, include all of the
authors’ last names in the first reference. Subsequently, use just the first author’s last name
followed by the words et al. (without italics). Et al. is a Latin abbreviation for et alii, meaning
“and others,” which is why the word “al.” has a period, whereas “et” does not. Alone, Other, and
Other (2011) stipulated that peacocks strut. The second time I refer to their material, I would
apply APA’s rule (Alone et al., 2011).
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author in the
body of the paper, followed by et al., as if you had already cited all of the authors previously
(Acworth et al., 2011). Note that I had not cited the Acworth et al. (2011) resource previously in
this paper. For seven or fewer authors in the references, write out all of the authors’ last names
with first- and middle initials, up to and including the seventh author. APA has a special rule for
resources with eight or more authors: Write out the first six authors’ last names with initials,
insert an ellipsis (…) in place of the ampersand (&), and finish it with the last name and initials
of the last author. See the examples provided in the chart on page 177 (APA, 2010), as well as
this paper’s reference list for visuals of these variances (Acworth et al. 2011; Harold et al.,
Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources
APA strongly advocates against using secondary sources; rather, it favors you finding
and citing the original (primary) resource whenever possible (6.17, p. 178). On the rare occasion
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that you do find it necessary to cite from a secondary source, both the primary (who said it) and
secondary (where the quote or idea was mentioned) sources should be included in the in-text
citation information. Only the secondary source should be listed in the reference section,
however. Use “as cited in” (without the quotation marks) to indicate the secondary source. For
example, James Morgan hinted that “goat milk makes the best ice cream” (as cited in Alone
2008, p. 117). Morgan is the primary source (he said it) and Alone is the secondary source (he
quoted what Morgan said). Only the secondary source is listed in the reference section (Alone,
and not Morgan) because if readers want to confirm the quote, they know to go to page 117 of
Personal Communication and Classical Work
The APA manual rationalizes the exclusion of references for information obtained
through personal communication (such as an interview, email, telephone call, postcard, text
message, or letter) in the reference list because your readers will not be able to go directly to
those sources and verify the legitimacy of the material. Instead, these items are cited only in the
body of the paper. You must include the individual’s first initial, his or her last name, the phrase
“personal communication,” and the full date of such communication. As with other citations,
such citations may be either narrative or parenthetical. For example, L. Applebaum advised him
to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (personal communication, July 13, 2015). The alternative is
that he was advised to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (L. Applebaum, personal
communication, July 13, 2015). Note that there is no entry for Applebaum in the reference list.
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Classical works, such as the Bible and ancient Greek or Roman works, are also cited in
the body of the paper but not included in the reference list. If you use a direct quote, you must
include the full name of the version or translation you quoted from the first time you quote from
it, but then you do not name the version or translation again in subsequent quotes unless you
change versions or translations (6.18, pp. 178-179). For example, Philippians 2:14 commands us
to “Do everything without complaining and arguing” (New Living Translation). James 1:27
proclaims that “Pure and genuine religion in the sight of God the Father means caring for
orphans and widows in their distress and refusing to let the world corrupt you.” Galatians 5:22
says that “the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness”
(New American Standard). Note that there is no translation cited for the middle quote, since it
was also taken from the NLT, which was specified in the immediately-preceding citation as well.
Technically, it would not be necessary or proper to include any version when you paraphrase the
Bible because all versions essentially say the same message in each verse, so a paraphrase of one
would apply equally to all versions. However, the APA (2010) manual is not explicitly clear that
this rule only applies to direct quotes, and for the sake of consistency and curbing confusion, the
OWC has opted to advise students to include the version the first time, even for paraphrases.
Lectures and PowerPoints
Course or seminar handouts, lecture notes, and PowerPoint presentations are generally
treated like personal communications unless they are published in material that can be readily
retrieved by your audience, like on a public website. When citing a PowerPoint presentation,
include the slide number rather than the page number. For purposes of LU course presentations
and lectures, however (which are not readily available to the public), the OWC advises students
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that there are two options. The first and more proper way is to cite it as a video lecture with the
URL for the presentation, naming the presenter(s) in the author’s position. Many of LU’s classes
are set up through Apple’s ITunes University—search for your course and find the specific video
at http://www.liberty.edu/academics/cafe/bb/index.cfm?PID=25563. Brewers and Peters (2010)
is an example.
The second option, if you cannot find it on iTunes U, names the course number and
enough details for others to identify it within that course, in a sort of book format, with the city,
state, and publisher relating to LU. Peters (2012) is an example of this. You’ll note that in this
particular case, the iTunes U included information on a second author that was not readily
identifiable in the Blackboard video itself. Usually, you will find the year of publication in the
closing screen at the end of the presentation.
The proper format for citing and referencing word definitions from dictionaries differs
from other citations and references because the word defined is used in the author’s position,
followed by the year (if known, or n.d. if not known). This is followed by “In” and the name of
the dictionary (i.e., Merriam Webster), and includes a URL to the webpage if searched online. If
you used a hard copy book, include the standard city, state, and publisher details. The in-text
citation in the body of the paper would also use the word searched in the author’s place, as well
as the year: (Heuristic, n.d.).
Exhaustive Samples Available
For a chart of a myriad of different sources and how each is formatted in proper APA
format, look for the “Downloadable version of the OWL Purdue information on APA citations”
on Liberty University’s Online Writing Center’s “APA Formatting” webpage.
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The APA, author of the APA manual, published a blog entry on how to cite documents
found on the Internet (see http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-
found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html). It includes a .pdf chart with all the possible
combinations, depending on what information you have or are missing. Use this for all online
resources other than LU-course lectures.
APA requires inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in the references whenever
available. These should be denoted in lower case (doi). Note that there should be no
punctuation after the doi in your reference list, and no space between the initials and the number
itself. If you cite “Retrieved from” with a URL, note that APA (2010) does not include the date
of retrieval “…unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis)” (p. 192). Some of
the hyperlinks in this paper are activated (showing blue, underlined text) for the purposes of
visualization, but hyperlinks should be removed in scholarly papers — and they should only
appear in the reference list. To do this, right click the hyperlink in Microsoft Word and choose
“remove hyperlink.” Like DOI’s, there should be no period after the URL. APA encourages
breaking long URL’s with soft returns (hold down the Shift key and press the Enter key) at
forward slashes, periods, or underscores to avoid unsightly gaps. You may have to remove
multiple elements of the hyperlink that linger in those circumstances.
Final Formatting Tweaks
APA should be double-spaced throughout, with no extra spacing between lines. It should
also include Times New Romans, 12-point font throughout. Sometimes when you format your
paper or cut-and-paste material into it, things get skewed. One quick way to ensure that your
paper appears correct in these regards is to do a final formatting tweak after you have completed
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your paper. Hold down the “Ctrl” button and press the “A” key, which selects and highlights all
of the text in your paper. Then go to the Home tab in Microsoft Word and make sure that Times
New Romans and 12-point font are selected in the Font box. Next, click on the arrow at the
bottom of the Paragraph tab. Set your spacing before and after paragraphs to “0 pt” and click the
“double” line spacing. If you are more advanced on the computer, you might consider changing
the default settings in Word that create some of these formatting errors, but the steps listed here
will correct them if you don’t have advanced word processing skills.
The conclusion to your paper should provide your readers with a concise summary of the
main points of your paper (though not via cut-and-pasted sentences used above). It is a very
important element, as it frames your whole ideology and gives your reader his or her last
impression of your thoughts.
After your conclusion, insert a page break at the end of the paper so that the reference list
begins at the top of a new page. Do this by holding down the “Ctrl” key and then “Enter.” You
will go to an entirely new page in order to start the reference list. The word “Reference” or
“References” (not in quotation marks—for singular or multiple resources, respectively) should
be centered, with no bolding or italics. Items in the reference list are presented alphabetically by
the first author’s last name and are formatted with hanging indents (the second+ lines are
indented 1/2” from the left margin). If you include a DOI or URL, be sure to remove the
hyperlink as addressed above.
One example of each of the primary types of resources will be included in the reference
list, as cited in the body of paper, for illustrative purposes. Remember that, for purposes of this
paper only, the sources cite in the body of the paper were provided for illustrative purposes only
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and thus are fictional, so you will not be able to locate them if you searched online.
Nevertheless, in keeping with APA style, all resources cited in the body of the paper are included
in the reference list and vice versa (except for personal communications and classical works, per
APA’s published exceptions). Be absolutely sure that every resource cited in the body of your
paper is also included in your reference list (and vice versa), excepting only those resources with
special rules, such as the Bible, classical works, and personal communications.
The reference list in this paper will include a book by person(s), a book whose publisher
is the same as the corporate author, a chapter in an edited book, a journal article, a webpage
document, a resource with no author, a dictionary entry, one with no year of publication noted,
two or more resources by the same author in the same year of publication (arranged
alphabetically by the first word in the title, but with the addition of letters in the year to
distinguish which one you are referring to in the body of your paper), two or more resources by
the same author in different years (arranged by date, with the earlier one first), resources with the
same first author but differing others, a paper previously submitted by a student in a prior class, a
resource with up to seven authors, and one with more than seven authors.
Lastly, below are a few webpages that address critical topics, such as how to avoid
plagiarism and how to write a research paper. Be sure to check out Liberty University’s Online
Writing Center (http://www.liberty.edu/index.cfm?PID=17176) for more tips and tools, as well
as its Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/LibertyUniversityOWC/). Remember that
these are only provided for your easy access and reference throughout this sample paper, but web
links and URLs should never be included in the body of scholarly papers; just in the reference
list. Writing a research paper (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaa-PTexW2E or
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNT6w8t3zDY) and avoiding plagiarism
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Acworth, A., Broad, P., Callum, M., Drought, J., Edwards, K., Fallow, P., & Gould, P. (2011).
The emphasis of the day. Melville, PA: Strouthworks. 1
Allen, B., Bacon, P., & Paul, M. (2011). Pericles and the giant. The Journal of Namesakes, 12(8),
13-18. doi:001.118.13601572 2
Alone, A. (2008). This author wrote a book by himself. New York, NY: Herald. 3
Alone, A., Other, B., & Other, C. (2011). He wrote a book with others, too: Arrange
alphabetically with the sole author first, then the others. New York, NY: Herald. 4
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 5
Brewers, G., & Peters, C. (2010). Defining integration: Key concepts
Brown, J. (2009). Ardent anteaters. Merill, NJ: Brockton Publishers.
Brown, M. (2009). Capricious as a verb. Journal of Grammatical Elements, 28(6), 11-12. 7
Carlisle, M. A. (n.d.). Erin and the perfect pitch. Journal of Music, 21(3), 16-17. Retrieved from
1 Resource with seven authors (maximum allowed by APA before special rule applies).
2 Typical journal article with doi.
3 Entry by author who also appears as one of many authors in another resource (single author appears first in list)
4 Multiple authors appear after same single-author resource.
5 Resource with corporate author as publisher.
6 LU video lecture using iTunes U details.
7 Resources by two authors with the same last name but different first names in the same year of publication.
Arrange alphabetically by the first initials.
8 Resource with no publishing date, and url.
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Double, C. (2008a). This is arranged alphabetically by the name of the title. Banks, MN: Peters.
Double, C. (2008b). This is the second (“the” comes after “arranged”). Banks, MN: Peters. 9
Harold, P., Maynard, M., Nixon, L., Owen, C., Powell, C., Quintin, J., … Raynard, A. (2014).
Apricot jam: A sign of the times. Endicott, NY: Peace & Hope. 10
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from
Liberty University. (2015). The online writing center. Retrieved from
Owen, C. (2012). Behavioral issues resulting from attachment disorders have spiritual
implications. Unpublished Manuscript: COUN502. Liberty University. 13
Perigogn, A. U., & Brazel, P. L. (2012). Captain of the ship. In J. L. Auger (Ed.) Wake up in the
dark (pp. 108-121). Boston, MA: Shawshank Publications. 14
Peters, C. (2012). Counseling 506, Week One, Lecture Two: Defining integration: Key concepts.
Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University Online. 15
Prayer. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.exact-webpage. 16
Second, M. P. (2011). Same author arranged by date (earlier first). Journal Name, 8, 12-13.
Second, M. P. (2015). Remember that earlier date goes first. Journal Name, 11(1), 18. 17
9 Two resources by same author in the same year. Arrange alphabetically by the title and then add lowercase
letters (a and b, respectively here) to the year.
10 Resource with eight or more authors. Note the ellipse (…) in place of the ampersand (&).
11 Dictionary entry.
12 Online webpage with url.
13 Citing a student’s paper submitted in a prior class, in order to avoid self-plagiarism.
14 Chapter from an edited book.
15 LU class lecture using course details rather than iTunes U.
16 Online resource with no named author. Title of webpage is in the author’s place.
17 Two resources by the same author, in different years. Arrange by the earlier year first.