Research Design Social Work

Chapter Two: Literature Review – minimum two – three pages

  1. Information about previous investigations / researches about your topic
  2. Theory Frame to be used during your investigation
  3. Hypothesis

Comment by Grace Izquierdo: APA – Running head / titulillo y número de la página – debe seguir el formato APA










The bio-psycho-social impact of Distance Education on American High School Academy students in Miami Dade County in South Florida, as consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic




Marzo 2021 Comment by Grace Izquierdo: Comment by Lopez, Jose (DCPS): No necesita estar en negritas. Tampoco comillas ya que es un título no una cita.


The bio-psycho-social impact of Distance Education on American High School Academy students in Miami Dade County in South Florida, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic

Introduction Comment by Grace Izquierdo: Capítulo Uno Introducción (debes seguir el formato que ha sido facilitado a los estudiantes)

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a crisis in many sectors globally, including the education sector. Since the disease hit the world, efforts have been made to seek alternative lifestyles. It forced the education sector to move away from face-to-face learning and both teachers and students switched to online learning. Since then, the disease has had a biological, psychological, and social impact on distance learning in adolescents (Ali, 2020). In this case, it is the ninth-grade students of the American High School Academy. The disease has created unprecedented pressure on Miami Dade. On April 6, 2021, the number of reported death cases was 19 and 1,516 new cases reported. This shows that the infection rate is still very high, despite the slight decrease in the number of infected. The COVID-19 rules being followed in Miami include getting vaccinated, wearing masks to maintain social distance, and disinfecting rooms and objects. American High School Academy that offers distance education as an alternative in times of pandemic, following the restrictions regarding social distancing. The referred center has a population of about 250 students and their teachers take attendance to classes online and classes are attended online. Comment by Grace Izquierdo: Here it would be good if you present examples of what you think is that biological, psychological and social impact, be a bit specific of the problem observed



1.1-Research problem / Definition

Coronavirus is a disease caused by the COVID-19 virus classified as a pandemic at present, which has changed the dynamics of the world in general. The first case was discovered in the city of Wuhan in China in December 2019 and since then the disease has spread around the world, claiming thousands of lives. COVID-19 has had an impact from the biological, psychological and social point of view in the ninth grade students of the American High School Academy located in Miami Dade County in southern Florida, starting with the implementation of the modality of the Distance Education to replace a face-to-face learning program. Students cannot adopt new rules and regulations due to limited financial resources (Ballivian et al., 2020). Students cannot continue with distance education due to limited financial resources.

1.2-Justification and relevance of the study

Faced with the threat of COVID-19, there was no prior preparation period for society. The rapid and aggressive spread of the pandemic and its consequences forced us to act in an emergency situation, which suggests alternatives to the usual practice. The institution is not exempt from these improvisations.

Undoubtedly, the practice of distance education has advantages at the level of each of the teaching levels. There have been some benefits to this change, although at first it is difficult to change reality differently. Some of the benefits of distance learning is its flexibility and that it can be learned at any time and at home. It’s fun and social – it gets you excited about the future. It helps to discover many things that one wants to know, and in the context of the home. It is efficient as it offers teachers effective ways to deliver lessons. It is affordable, it has improved student attendance as students learn from school, it has a variety of learning styles and styles. This study is useful for the education sector in Florida (Ali, 2020). Provides an understanding of the effectiveness of distance learning that has been implemented since the Coronavirus hit Miami Dade in Florida.

The research points out the disadvantages associated with distance learning in the selected school, and the impact for its students. Disadvantages are technology problems, inability to focus on screens especially for visually impaired students, a sense of isolation whereby students can always learn better when in a group. Teacher training in which teachers are required to be familiar with digital ways of learning. It’s hard to manage screen time. Beyond these short-term consequences, in a longer period of time it is appreciated that the social component of the Personality of adolescents is affected from different perspectives. The isolation, the loss of personal contact among adolescents, the absence of group learning, a primary factor in this age group, gradually separates them from their social group where they feel full and interact with their peers. Likewise, their personal appearance ceases to be an important element due to their own isolation, and as a result of changes in their lifestyle, diet, sleep and extracurricular activities. In the medium term, these consequences are physiological, therefore, the biological component of the Personality receives its observable effects in an increase in weight, irregularities in the functioning of one or more organ systems, among other conditions, for example. Undoubtedly, students’ self-esteem can be hurt by changing their appearance and acceptance by others, so important at this stage of development. In the worst case, the appearance of mental illnesses or diagnoses, such as depression and anxieties, are also a consequence of the isolation indicated in times of pandemic. (García & Weiss, 2020) Comment by Grace Izquierdo: This seems more like the description of the problem to me. In this section you should think more about why this study will be important for social work, education, the school community, the county, families. What will this study do? Review the correct use of capital letters. Only proper names, places, etc.


1.3-Objectives of the study Comment by Grace Izquierdo: Space is double in the whole document

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the bio-psycho-social impact of distance education as a style of education during the COVID-19 pandemic, in ninth grade students from American High School Academy in Miami Dade in South Florida. .


1.4-Research questions

• What sociodemographic characteristics predominate in American High School Academy ninth graders?

• How is bio-psychosocial impact defined in ninth grade students at American High School Academy?

• What are the advantages and disadvantages of distance education in times of a pandemic?

• What types of mental illness have prevailed in American High School Academy ninth graders?

• during the COVID-19 pandemic?

• What stressors related to COVID-19 are correlated with anxiety and depression during the pandemic?

1.5-Variables and definition of variables

Bio-psycho-social impact Comment by Grace Izquierdo: What are the dependent and independent variables? You need to define them operationally and conceptually.

Long distance education

Strange variables: other variables can constitute them, the characteristics of the instructor, administrative support, course design, course content, social support, student characteristics, technical support and the sociodemographic variables are age, gender and educational level (Wodon, 2020 ).


1.6-Definition of important concepts

Distance education: Also known as online, online or remote education, it is an innovative way of learning and teaching that brings the dynamics of a traditional and face-to-face class to the digital world. In this way, from anywhere in the world, students and teachers will be able to connect in a virtual environment on their computers through the Internet, making intensive use of the facilities provided by new digital technologies. (According to the University of Palermo) -doubt

Distance education is a teaching modality with great potential and is an excellent option that, if carried out professionally, guarantees the same results as traditional teaching. (According to Madero University)

Bio-Psycho-Social Balance: We speak of a biopsychosocial model with reference to the approach that takes care of people’s health from the integration of biological, psychological and social factors. This model understands that the well-being of man depends on the three dimensions: it is not enough that the individual is physically healthy.

The biopsychosocial model is one of the models that we find in the field of psychology, and even psychotherapy. It is an approach that establishes that there are several factors that influence the development and well-being of a person, in the context of a disease, disorder or disability.

These factors, as the name of the model itself indicates, are of three types: biological (genetics, inheritance …), psychological (behaviors, emotions, thoughts …) and social (educational opportunities, poverty, unemployment …). (Ruiz Mitjana, Laura; 2020) Comment by Grace Izquierdo: Check the space between this paragraph and the next.


School institutions around the world have been closed due to COVID-19 with more than 1.2 billion children out of the classroom. Education has changed dramatically with the distinctive rise of e-learning and teaching takes place on digital platforms and remotely. Distance learning takes less time and has increased information retention, meaning that these changes caused by the Coronavirus may never be discounted. (García and Weiss, 2020) Comment by Grace Izquierdo: This is kind of out of place – where does it belong, what are you defining?

Projected limitations of the study Comment by Grace Izquierdo: What limitations do you project in your research? What obstacles?

Research shows that distance education coverage is increasing as most students and institutions are opting for that. Distance learning is possible due to lack of control, it can be impersonal, too much time that students and teachers spend on the computer can be harmful, and it is a solo act, although it is convenient and flexible and requires self-discipline.

1.8-Description of the research design Comment by Grace Izquierdo: This does not explain the design of your research to me. What is the design of your research? You need to work this part.

Miami County has a high-risk exposure to COVID-19 based on test positivity and cases per capita. The number of daily infections is very high and cases have fluctuated within almost the same number in the last two weeks (Ballivian et al., 2020). In Miami Dade the positivity is very high, around + 14% and the number of deaths is very high. The number of hospitalized COVID-19 patients has decreased in this county in the state of Florida. Distance learning is the most effective learning method for a county with a high infection rate like Miami Dade.





• Ali, T. (2020). Distance Learning During COVID-19: 7 Fairness Considerations for Schools and Districts. Report the problem. Southern Education Foundation.

• Ballivian, J., Alcaide, M. L., Cecchini, D., Jones, D. L., Abbamonte, J. M. and Cassetti, I. (2020). Impact of COVID-19-related stress and blockage on the mental health of people living with HIV in Argentina. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 85 (4), 475-482.

• García, E. and Weiss, E. (2020). COVID-19 and US Student Achievement, Equity, and Education Policy: Lessons from Pre-Pandemic Research to Inform Relief, Recovery, and Reconstruction. Institute of Economic Policy.

• Wodon, Q. (2020). COVID-19 crisis impacts on Catholic schools and possible responses | Part 1: Developed countries with special attention to the United States.