• Students will present their Research Proposal to the rest of the class.  Power Point required.

    Oral Presentations
    Research Proposals
    (30 minutes)

    1. Introduction
      1. Problem Identification
    2. Justification / Relevance
      1. Why is important for the society? For Social Work?
    3. Research Questions
    4. Variables
      1. Dependent
      2. Independent
    5. Important Concepts
    6. Research Design
    7. Theory Frame
      1. Theories
      2. Application
    8. Hypothesis
    9. Participants
    10. Instrument
    11. Procedure (Summary)
    12. Data Analysis
    13. Conclusion
    14. References
  • HW 8.2 Research ProposalStudents will submit their complete proposals. Proposal should include all the elements below.

    Initial Page – Title – Page that contains the title and the theme of the investigation
    Table of Content
    Chapter One: Introductory Chapter (Introduction) – minimum two – three pages,
    Introduction about the topic, history of the topic, laws, regulations, and information that support your topic

  1. Problem Definition
  2. Justification and relevance of the study
  3. Objectives
  4. Research Questions
  5. Variables and definition of the variables
  6. Definition of important concepts
  7. Projected limitations of your study
  8. Research design description
  9. Chapter Two: Literature Review –  minimum two – three pages
    Brief Introduction
    2.1 Information about previous investigations / researches about your topic
    2.2 Theory Frame to be used during your investigation
    2.3 Hypothesis
    Chapter Three: Methodology – minimum 2-3 pages
    Brief Introduction
    3.1 Participants
    3.2 Description of the instrument (s)
    3.3 Steps / Procedures / Process to get your research completed including the way that you review your literature
    3.4 Data Analysis
    Chapter Four: Conclusion – One page
    Brief Summary of your proposal

    **The document should follow APA style in all it aspects. APA style 6th Edition.









The Bio-Psycho-Social Impact of Distance Education on American High School Academy Students in Miami Dade County in South Florida, as Consequence of the COVID-19 Pandemic


Student Name

Institution Affiliation













Chapter Two

Literature Review

This section includes a review of published literature related to the bio-psychosocial impact of distance education on high school academy students due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Al-Sabbah et al. (2021) conducted a study to examine the biopsychosocial factors that affect students’ and educators’ wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the effect of the factors on the individuals’ thoughts, feelings, work environment, family relationships, and behavior. The questionnaire used in the study contained the biological, psychological, and social domains that covered the symptoms that manifested as a result of the pandemic. The biopsychosocial factors identified were depression, increased sleep and appetite, headache, physical comfort, the negative impact of media, and goal achievement. Physical exercise, eating more, and sleeping were the reported coping strategies used by students and educators to cope with COVID-19 related stress.

Generally, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the increased use of distance learning through online classes due to the closure of schools and the discontinuation of face-to-face learning. Pokhrel and Chhetri (2021) provided a comprehensive report outlining how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted online learning. The authors pointed out the emotional and psychological distress that many students have experienced as a result of online homeschooling. Some of the positive aspects identified are the increased understanding, self-directed learning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills from online classes. Students are exposed to increased screen time, which is associated with various harmful effects such as obesity (Pokhrel & Chhetri (2021). Pokhrel and Chhetri (2021) identified various social, economic, and psychological consequences of online learning, including exposure to cyberbullying, violent content, and online exploitation, as students may not have the skills to keep their virtual environment safe.

Similarly, a study conducted by Silva et al. (2020) established that distance learning was an effective coping tool against the negative effect of the social isolation measures enacted during the pandemic. The researchers analyzed the impact of distance on the quality of life of undergraduate students, learning during the COVID-19 pandemic considering the social isolation put in place to control the spread of the virus. The findings of the study were that social isolation had the highest impact on the psychological domain of the students’ quality of life. The overall effect of distance learning on the students’ quality of life was positive. Sociodemographic characteristics such as age and sex had a varying effect on the quality of life. The students experienced an improvement in the quality of life with age advancement, meaning that the older students had a better quality of life when learning online during isolation. Female students experienced a better quality of life than male students. Silva et al. (2020) also analyzed the impact of social factors such as the devices used to access distance education and the study environment. The students who conducted the distance education from the study room, as well as those who used virtual platforms such as Skype or Zoom, had a higher quality of life than those who did not have access to these facilities.

Accordingly, Bolatov et al. (2021) established that online learning as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic improved students’ mental health in a study conducted at Astana Medical University in the Republic of Kazakhstan targeting medical students. The researchers compared the mental health status of students using the traditional face-to-face learning system with those who had switched to online learning. The findings of the study indicated that online learning led to a decrease in the prevalence of anxiety, depression, burnout syndrome, and somatic symptoms. Nevertheless, online learning negatively affected students’ interpersonal relationships and communication increasing colleague-related burnout. Students with anxiety and depressive symptoms and those that were dissatisfied with their academic performance had a decline in academic performance. Students that were receiving online education under quarantine and lived alone were at an increased risk of depression.

The Biopsychosocial Model of Health

The biopsychosocial model will be used in this study. The model explains the effect of psychological stress on the development of a disease as a result of the interaction of the mind and the body. The model rejects the assumption that the development of disease entirely affects physical health, and includes a consideration of psychological, social, and biological aspects of health (Kusnanto et al., 2018). According to the biopsychosocial model, social, biological, and social elements contribute to the development of an illness. As a result, to achieve rapid recovery during treatment, it is necessary to consider a medical, psychological, and social paradigm. The benefit of this approach is that it allows examination of the psychological, social, and biological reasons that caused the illness. The biopsychosocial model can be applied in the context of distance learning in the wake of COVID-19 to examine its effects and its causes. The emotional and mental problems that arise due to online learning can be attributed to the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which increases the vulnerability of individuals to psychological problems. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with physical distancing measures such as quarantine, which increases individuals’ susceptibility to mental health problems.


The hypotheses of the study are that:

H1: Distance education has a positive biopsychosocial impact on American High School Academy ninth graders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

H2: Distance education has a significant negative impact on the mental health of American High School Academy ninth graders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

H3: COVID-19-related stressors increase the vulnerability of American High School Academy ninth graders to problems caused by distance learning.

H4: Sociodemographic characteristics influence the impact of distance education on American High School Academy ninth graders during the COVID-19 pandemic.

















Al-Sabbah, S., Darwish, A., Fares, N., Barnes, J., & Almomani, J. A. (2021). Biopsychosocial factors linked with overall well-being of students and educators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cogent Psychology, 8(1), 1875550. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2021.1875550

Bolatov, A. K., Seisembekov, T. Z., Askarova, A. Z., Baikanova, R. K., Smailova, D. S., & Fabbro, E. (2021). Online-learning due to COVID-19 improved mental health among medical students. Medical Science Educator, 31(1), 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-020-01165-y

Kusnanto, H., Agustian, D., & Hilmanto, D. (2018). Biopsychosocial model of illnesses in primary care: A hermeneutic literature review. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 7(3), 497–500. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_145_17

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631120983481

Silva, P. G. D. B., de Oliveira, C. A. L., Borges, M. M. F., Moreira, D. M., Alencar, P. N. B., Avelar, R. L., … & Sousa, F. B. (2020). Distance learning during social seclusion by COVID‐19: improving the quality of life of undergraduate dentistry students. European Journal of Dental Education, 25(1), 124-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12583