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Reproductive Endocrinology

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Introduction.

Reproductive endocrinology is a complex term associated with hormone description and control process associated with sexual development and regulation.

The concept is also associated with sexual reproduction and functions. It is th rough reproductive endocrinology that scientists explore the different sexual mechanisms in different genders.

Reproductive endocrinology is also essential in the identification of various disorders.

Generally, reproductive endocrinology disorders are attributed to an alteration in the functionalities of the hirsutism, virilization, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea.

This research paper will be based on reproductive endocrinology of the male reproductive system, whereby the male reproductive functions will be identified

 

 

Like the female reproductive system, the male reproductive system is also complex, creating the need to explore it further.

Typically, clinical reproductive endocrinology is associated with the evaluation of diseases and the secretory aspects of the endocrine glands involved in the reproduction and secretion of sexual products.

The endocrine system has the sole role of evaluating the functionalities of the different hormones.

In this case, the male endocrine reproduction system will be evaluated to obtain the male reproductive functions.

This research will be based on a systematic review of various studies that are secondary sources, which offer the ground theory for further studies.

The secondary will have to be current is older than five years.

They also have to be peer-reviewed.

This will ensure that the information corrected is valid and credible.

The sources will be obtained from various databases such as google scholar, PubMed, and other scientific databases that offer credible resources.

 

Discussion

The male reproductive functions can be divided into three:

Regulation of reproductive function by different hormones,

Spermatogenesis

Sexual act.

Classically, spermatogenesis is divided into three stages:

meiosis

Spermatogenesis

spermiogenesis.

Spermatogenesis

Type B spermatogonia lead to spermatocytes’ generation by undergoing DNA replication (Fayomi &Orwig, 2018).

The chief spermatocytes complete meiosis I and form two secondary spermatocytes.

Two secondary spermatocytes complete meiosis II and four spermatids are formed.

The Spermatids endure a sequence of morphological alterations that culminate in sperm production. These changes include acrosome formation, head, nucleus, neck, and tail creation.

The entire process for spermatogenesis is about 64 days (from spermatogonia to spermatozoa).

 

Hormonal regulation

The reproduction process is characterized by a myriad of process, which calls for various hormones to interact.

Leydig cells have the sole role of the secretion of testosterone.

Leydig cells do not synthesize glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids because they do not contain 21β-hydroxylase or 11β-hydroxylase (unlike the adrenal cortex) (Zirkin & Papadopoulos, 2016).

Generally, the Luitenizing Hormone is responsible for the secretion of testosterone through an increase in cholesterol desmolase production. The accessory reproductive organs (such as the prostate) contain 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone.

Luteinizing Hormone endorse testosterone synthesis. Testosterone acts through the testis’s paracrine mechanism and enhances the spermatogenic effect of FSH on Sertoli cells.

testosterone is converted to DHT and binds to steroid receptors. DHT is activated, translocate to the nucleus, binds to specific DNA regions, and initiates transcription.

 

 

Sexual Act

Men have well-coordinated sperm delivery activity. Parasympathetic nerves associated with erection, S 2, 3, 4, cavernous hemangiomas, and cavernous hemangiomas (du Toit et al., 2017).

Sexual intercourse is associated with lubrication of the urethral and bulbourethral glands. L1-2 via sympathetic release, lower abdomen, and pelvic plexus.

The ultimate male reproductive function is the continuous contraction of the sperm, prostate, and seminal vesicles, and when the urethra feels busy, sciatica and corpus cavernosum muscle contract.

 

The male reproductive functions can be categorized into three: the regulation of hormones, the sexual act, and spermatogenesis.

A disability of either function may render one infertile as they harmoniously interact in the reproduction process.

Spermatogenesis is integral which relies on the regulation of the different hormones.

Any negative stimuli on the hormones may lead to the inhibition of the main hormones needed in reproduction.

Generally, based on the research, it is evident that the male reproduction functions may be categorized into three: a sexual act, spermatogenesis, and the regulation of the various hormones.

References

du Toit, T., Bloem, L. M., Quanson, J. L., Ehlers, R., Serafin, A. M., & Swart, A. C. (2017). Profiling adrenal 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione metabolites in prostate cancer cells, tissue, and plasma: UPC2-MS/MS quantification of 11β-hydroxytestosterone, 11keto-testosterone and 11keto-dihydrotestosterone. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 166, 54-67.

Fayomi, A. P., & Orwig, K. E. (2018). Spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogenesis in mice, monkeys, and men. Stem cell research, 29, 207-214.

Zirkin, B. R., & Papadopoulos, V. (2018). Leydig cells: formation, function, and regulation. Biology of reproduction, 99(1), 101-111.