Original Infographic: Infographics are a powerful marketing and information tool that is commonly used in Public Health. For this assignment you will create an original infographic related to a course competency or learning objective of your choice. Your infographic will be posted to the discussion board with a narrative (50 word minimum) to describe your infographic and its relevance to public health. You are expected to review and respond to at least two of your colleague’s infographics.

Each person must submit a copy of the infographics with a reflection of no more than one-two double-spaced pages.

The reflection should include:

1. What message are you communicating within your infographic?

2. Why did you choose this topic?

3. What did you like about creating an infographic?

4. What was challenging about creating an infographic?

5. What did you learn while creating an infographic?

6. How can you use infographics in the future?

Chapter 5

Community Organizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming

Chapter Objectives (1 of 2)

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Explain the terms evidence, evidence-based practice, and socio-ecological perspective.

Define community organizing, community capacity, community participation, and empowered community.

Identify the assumptions that underlie the process of community organization.

Briefly explain the differences among planning and policy practice, community capacity development, and social advocacy strategies to community organization.

Explain the difference between needs-based and strengths-based community organizing models.

List the steps for a generalized model for community organizing/building.

Chapter Objectives (2 of 2)

Explain what community building means.

Explain the difference between health education and health promotion.

State and summarize the steps involved in creating a health promotion program.

Define the term needs assessment.

Briefly explain the six steps used in assessing needs.

Explain the difference between goals and objectives.

List the different types of intervention strategies.

Explain the differences among best practices, best experiences, and best processes.

Explain the purposes of pilot testing in program development.

State the difference between formative and summative evaluation.

Introduction (1 of 2)

Evidence-based Practice

Systematically finding, appraising, and using evidence as the basis for decision making

Evidence – the body of data that can be used to make decisions

Introduction (2 of 2)

Socio-ecological approach to behavior change

Interaction between and interdependence of factors within and across all levels of a health problem

Behavior has multiple levels of influence

Behavior change usually a combination of individual and environmental/policy-level interventions

Community Organizing/Building

Community health problems range from small to complex

Community organizing

Process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they have collectively set

Not a science, but an art of consensus building

Community Organizing/Building Terms

Community capacity


Grassroots participation

Macro practice

Participation and relevance

Social capital

Need for Organizing Communities

Changes in community social structure have lead to loss of a sense of community

Advances in electronics


Increased mobility

Community organizing skills extend beyond community health


Assumptions of Community Organizing

Those who organize communities do so while making certain assumptions


Community Organizing Methods (1 of 2)

No single preferred method

Planning and policy practice, community capacity development, and social advocacy

All incorporate fundamental principles

Start where the people are


Create environments in which people and communities can become empowered as they increase problem-solving abilities


Community Organizing Methods (2 of 2)

Reproduced from Minkler, M., and N. Wallerstein (2012). “Improving Health through Community Organization and Community Building: Perspectives from Health Education and Social Work.” In M. Minkler, ed., Community Organizing and Community Building for Health and Welfare, 3rd ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 44. Reprinted with permission.

Community organization and community building typology

Recognizing the Issue

Initial organizer

Recognizes that a problem exists and decides to do something about it

Gets things started

Can be from within or outside of the community

Grass-roots, citizen initiated, bottom-up

Top-down, outside-in


Gaining Entry into the Community

Organizers need:

Cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, cultural humility

Organizers need to know:

Who is causing problem and why; how problem has been addressed in past; who supports and opposes idea of addressing problem; who could provide more insight


Organizing the People

Executive participants

Leadership identification


Expanding constituencies

Task force



Assessing the Community

Community building

Needs assessment vs. mapping community capacity

Community assets

Primary building blocks

Secondary building blocks

Potential building blocks

Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals

Criteria to consider when selecting priority issue

Problem must be winnable

Must be simple and specific

Must unite members of organizing group

Should affect many people

Should be part of larger plan

Goals written to serve as guide for problem solving

Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies

Alternate solutions exist for every problem

Probable outcomes

Acceptability to the community

Probable long- and short-term effects

Costs of resources

Final Steps




Looping Back

Health Promotion Programming

Important tool for community health professionals

Health education – part of health promotion

Health promotion – more encompassing than health education

Program planning

May or may not be associated with community organizing/building

Process by which an intervention is planned

Creating a Health Promotion Program

Involves a series of steps

Success depends on many factors

Experienced planners use models to guide work

Before process begins, important to understand and engage priority population (audience)

Priority population – those whom the program is intended to serve


Assessing Needs of the Priority Population

Determining purpose and scope of needs assessment

Gathering data

Analyzing data

Identifying risk factors linked to health problem

Identifying program focus

Validating prioritized need

Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives

Foundation of the program

Portions of the programming process are designed to achieve the goals by meeting the objectives



Provide overall direction for the program

Are more general in nature

Do not have a specific deadline

Usually take longer to complete

Are often not measured in exact terms

Objectives (1 of 2)

More precise than goals

Steps to achieve the program goals

The more complex a program, the more objectives needed

Composed of who, what, when, and how much

Objectives (2 of 2)

Data from Deeds, S. G. (1992). The Health Education Specialist: Self-Data from Study for Professional Competence. Los Alamitos, CA: Loose Cannon Publications; Cleary, M. J., and B. L. Neiger (1998). The Certified Health Education Specialist: A Self-Study Guide for Professional Competence, 3rd ed. Allentown, PA: National Commission for Health Education Credentialing; and McKenzie, J. F., B. L. Neiger, and R. Thackeray (2017). Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer, 7th ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Creating an Intervention that Considers the Peculiarities of the Setting


Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals

The program that the priority population will experience

May be several or a few activities

Intervention Considerations



Best practices

Best experience

Best processes

Implementing the Intervention


Putting a planned program into action

Pilot test

Trial run‒implementation to a small group

Determine problems and fix before full implementation

Phasing in

Step-by-step implementation; implementation with small groups

Evaluating the Results

Determine the value or worth of an object of interest

Evaluation should occur during first steps of program development

Formative evaluation

Summative evaluation

Impact evaluation

Outcome evaluation

Steps to Evaluation

Engage stakeholders

Describe the program

Focus on the evaluation design

Gather credible data

Justify conclusions

Ensure use and share lessons learned

Discussion Questions

How would you explain the difference between health education and health promotion?

How can community members work together to solve health problems?