Touchstone 2.2: Create An Annotated Bibliography

Please read the directions thoroughly. I need seven credible sources. Use the attachments to complete the assignment. Below the essay please insert the reflection questions and answer them accordingly.

ASSIGNMENT: Using your research question, working thesis, and outline from Touchstone 1.2, create an annotated bibliography that provides a synopsis of your sources and an explanation of how you will use them.

In order to foster learning and growth, all essays you submit must be newly written specifically for this course. Any recycled work will be sent back with a 0, and you will be given one attempt to redo the Touchstone.

As this assignment builds on Touchstone 1.2: Write a Research Question, Thesis, and Outline, that Touchstone, as well as Touchstone 2.1, must be graded before you can submit your annotated bibliography.

A. Assignment Guidelines

DIRECTIONS: Refer to the list below throughout the writing process. Do not submit your Touchstone until it meets these guidelines.

1. Annotated Bibliography

Make sure to:

❒ Alphabetize the entries, according to APA style.
❒ Include the required bibliographic information in APA format for each entry.❒ Include 3-4 sentences for each entry that provide a short summary of the source and how you plan to use it to support your argument.❒ Include at least seven entries in your annotated bibliography, all of which must be credible, academic sources.❒ Choose your own sources, but use no more than three websites (there is no limit on the number of online journals used).❒ Thoroughly check the formatting requirements for the different source types.❒ Indicate the required sources (book, peer-reviewed journal, newspaper/magazine, and credible website) by including the source type in parentheses after the relevant entry.

2. Reflection

❒ Have you displayed a clear understanding of the research activities?
❒ Have you answered all reflection questions thoughtfully and included insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses?
❒ Are your answers included on a separate page below the main assignment?

B. Reflection Questions

DIRECTIONS: Below your assignment, include answers to all of the following reflection questions.

  1. Accurately recording bibliographic information is essential and saves you time, as you can transfer this information to the References page of your drafted essay. Each source entry should include a brief summary of the source as well as 3-4 sentences describing how you intend to use that source to build or support your argument. Discuss how your annotated bibliography meets these criteria. (2-3 sentences)
  2. Which strategies were most helpful for you when searching for credible sources? (2-3 sentences)
  3. What difficulties did you face while searching for credible sources? How did you overcome these difficulties? (2-3 sentences)







Brea Robinson

Sophia Pathways

Comp II

April 11, 2021

Impact of Technology

Research question: Does technology have an impact on the society?

Working thesis statement: Due to current digitalization trend, the society depends on technology completely in all sectors, and technology has impacted the society greatly in all sectors.

Detailed Outline

I. Working Thesis in Introduction: Due to current digitalization trend, the society depends on technology completely in various sectors, and technology has impacted the society greatly in various sectors.

A. Evidence of the impacts of technology

B. Introduction of the impacts.

Source: Effects of Technology in Society and Education Digital Commons

II. Agriculture Mechanization

A. Various technologies of modern agriculture

B. The purpose and significance of the technology

Source: Changing Machinery Technology and Agricultural Adjustment* C.F. Donaldson and J.P Mclnerney

III. Improvement in Transportation

A. Transportation Developments

B. Transportation Technology and Innovation

Source: Technology Changes and Transportation Development William L. Garrison

IV. Improvement in Communication

A. Benefit in business

B. Benefit in education

Source: Techwalla How Technology Has Improved Communication

V. Improvement in Education and Learning Process

A. Greater Accessibility.

B. Increased Flexibility.

Source: Raja, R., & Nagasubramani, P. C. (2018). Impact of modern technology in education.

VI. Counterargument

A. Resource Depletion

B. Increased Population

Source 1: Impact of Technology on the Environment and How Environment Technology Could save Our Planet Edinburghsensors.

Source 2: Jason Collins blog Population, technological progress and the evolution of innovative potential

VII. Conclusion

A. Technology has various impacts on society both negative and positive.

B. There is need for the society to empress Technology because it has more positive impacts than negative impacts.

Source: Almeling, D. S. (2012). Seven reasons why trade secrets are increasingly important.







Due to current digitalization trend, the society depends on technology completely in various sectors, and technology has impacted the society greatly in various sectors. Throughout the history, there has been evidence of technology changing the society in various ways. Over the last century, computers, iPads, cellular devices, internet and iPods have completely change the way people interact with one another in the society and way teaching is done in schools.

Technology has mechanized agriculture largely. The various modern technologies allows people to grow food in large scale farms using less input and yields generate are high. The society has various benefits from improved technology in transport systems. People are able to travel from one place to another with the aid of transport facilities developed by technology. Technology has improved communication in various ways making the whole process of communication become easier. Implementation of technology in schools has improved the results of students through improvements in the process of learning.

Agriculture Mechanization

Various Technologies of Modern Agriculture

There are various machines used in plowing, sowing, watering and harvesting crops. The machines were developed from simple to complicated forms which help in various processes of agriculture. The machines include: ploughs, harvesters, and planters. Also there are other machines used in processing various crops for final use. Besides, there are various artificial fertilizers that farmers use, which help in addition of great value to the soil and boosting of crops’ growth by allowing productivity of high quality yields.



The purpose and Significance of Technology

Farm mechanization has made agriculture simple and easy process. Agriculture mechanization has contributed to the growth of economy largely thus progressing the economy. The mechanizations aim at minimizing inputs and maximizing the outputs. Farmers in dry areas are able to grow crops that are healthy by using technology of sprinklers and water pumps which drive water from rivers to the farms.

Improvement in Transportation

Transportation Developments

The services of transport have been made cheaper, better and faster by the improvements of technology over the past years. In ancient times, wheeled wagons, and carts that were driven by animals like horses were used in transport. Steam was harnessed which help in transport. That was followed by gasoline, diesel and turbine engines. The various vehicles have been developed making transport easy. Various developments in trains, plane and other means of transport is evident in the affordable transport services.

Transportation Technology and Innovation

Technology and innovation are everyday events of developments in transportation. That is because people and organization try to look for ways to travel faster and better. The following include the best innovations and technology in transport.

1. Automobile

2. Airplane

3. Highways

4. Spacecraft

5. Petroleum and petrochemicals

Improvement in Communication

Benefits in Business

The flow of information within the place of work has been increased technology. Many organizations use electronic communication methods. These methods include voicemail, email, videoconferences, intranet, online news letters and instant messages. The manager is able to obtain feedback from workers by use of a company exclusive website intranet. It is also used to avoid criticisms from employees.

Benefits in Education

Technology has improved the field of cultural education. Through the use of technology children are able to speak with children from different cultures. Children are able to learn different cultures faster when interacting with other children through computer mediated communication such as emails and instant messages. Computer also helps students in research by granting them access to information from various sources whether they are at home or in the classroom.

Improvement in Education and Learning Process

Greater Accessibility

Unlike in the past where students and teachers were needed to be present in the same location for learning to take place, it is now possible for education to take place online while students and teachers are at the comfort of their places. In today’s world of education, various degrees are offered online without any need of student participating in physical learning. Online learning has greatly help break down geographical barriers which had prevented learners from reaching their educational institutions.

Increased Flexibility

Online classes have reduced the burden of students to attend classes physically. The students were incurring some costs to reach their various institutions. Online classes have also freed students from mandatory attendance of classes at specified times. With technology, students are able to get all the materials they need at one place without moving from one place to another. It is possible for someone who works to get education online without leaving their jobs.


Technology has various positive impacts but it also have some negative impacts on society.

Resource Depletion

There is demand of resources from the earth to develop latest and new technologies thus depleting the resources. Mobile phone and computers are manufactured on a regular basis, which require more resources. Technology also impacts the environment negatively by causing pollution in air and water. Vehicles and other machines used in the society emit harmful gases to the air that causes air pollution.

Increased Population

When there is technological progress, the population also increases because of the increased income generated by the progress in technology. This is favorable in developed countries but unfavorable in developing countries. That is because in developed countries, population is controlled by various birth control methods to balance the population in terms of resources.


Technology has various impacts on society both positive and negative. However, it may appears to be bad on the other sides, the society should still empress technology because of its many transformations. You can imagine life without internet, vehicles and other technological devices it will be so boring. Technology has enabled the society to have better services on various sectors such as education and transport. There is need for society to empress technology because it has more positive impacts than negative impacts.








Reflection questions

1) Learning to conduct research is important because it is a skill you will use both in

Academia and in your professional life. It improves critical thinking and empowers

you to find information for yourself. Consider the process of researching as a whole.

What was the most challenging aspect of the process for you? (2-3 sentences)

It was challenging to allocate time for this research with my ever growing demands of my time. I spent a lot of time primarily in looking for sources of materials for this particular paper. It was extremely difficult for me to do assessment on various sources and know whether the information they contain is useful and credible for my essay. I thought it will take a short period but to my surprise it took too long. From now henceforth, I have known, it takes tremendous time to learn something.

2) The working thesis statement is a proposed answer to your research question. It

should clearly identify a debatable topic and take a position on one side of that topic.

Analyze the effectiveness of your working thesis statement.

My working thesis statement is a single sentence that outlines one side of a debatable and relevant argument. Besides, I tried my best to be as specific as I could instead of just saying the society “depends on technology” I stated how technology has impacted the society and why the society should empress technology.


3) A detailed outline is an effective tool for laying out the progression of an

argument. It allows you to consider the arrangement and organization of your ideas,

as well as choose places to incorporate outside source materials. Review your

detailed outline and summarize the argument you’ve presented.

I started by giving the various impacts of technology on various sectors of the society and discuss the impacts in depth to leave no room for doubts. I first discussed the positive impacts then the negative impacts in the counterargument. I think the argument progresses logically in this way and the information that I provided in my introduction and conclusion will be helpful in summarizing the topic.

4) You will use the same topic on three of the remaining Touchstones in this course.

What kind of feedback would be helpful for you? What are specific questions you

might have as you go deeper into the research process?

I have confidence in the information that I provided, but I need more insights into my essay structure. I think my outline is clear, but I am not very sure if it will make sense to a person who is unfamiliar with the topic. I would like some guidance on my use of formatting. I used APA formatting in the best way possible I know.






Sutton, B. (2013). The effects of technology in society and education.

Donaldson, G. F., & McInerney, J. P. (1973). Changing machinery technology and agricultural adjustment. American Journal of Agricultural Economics55(5), 829-839.

Garrison, W. L. (2001). Technological Changes and Transportation Development.

Grigoryan, G. M. (2019). Armath engineering laboratories as an armenian scientific-educational brand and a new communication platform. Լեզու և լեզվաբանություն= Язык и языкознание= Language and linguistics, (1), 57-64.

Raja, R., & Nagasubramani, P. C. (2018). Impact of modern technology in education. Journal of Applied and Advanced Research3(1), 33-35.

Environmental Technology | Impact of technology on the environment. (2021). Retrieved 11 April 2021, from,entering%20into%20a%20production%20decline.

Almeling, D. S. (2012). Seven reasons why trade secrets are increasingly important. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 1091-1117.