Humanistic Theories

 Humanistic Theories

Please follow all instructions there are two parts of the discussion please read carefully?

An individual’s first priority is survival. Those are the basic instincts that prompt us to drink when we are thirsty, eat when hungry, rest when weary, and fight or flee when threatened. Survival does not provide much opportunity to ponder who we are as individuals, what our potential may be as human beings, and how to discover and “actualize” those possibilities.

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Humanistic theorists, however, believe that when basic needs are met, a person’s attention naturally turns to those other higher priorities. In fact, the ideas of achievement and unlimited potential—as well as self-actualization, a term that you will meet in the Learning Resources this week—are prevalent in humanistic personality theories. In Week 3 you will explore the theories and contributions of two prominent humanists, psychologists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. As you did in your study of psychoanalytic theories in Week 2, you will consider the strengths and limitations of humanistic theories and how they apply to an understanding of personality.

You also have not seen the last of Sigmund Freud. For the Discussion this week, you will compare how Freud and Rogers would explain some uniquely 21st century behaviors.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Apply psychoanalytic theory and humanistic theory to understanding a dimension of modern life
  • Evaluate effectiveness of humanistic and psychoanalytic theories in explaining human behavior
  • Analyze components of Maslow’s and Rogers’ humanistic theories
  • Evaluate theories of actualization
  • Assess influence of culture on perception of success
  • Apply humanistic theory to professional and personal life
  • Demonstrate an understanding of humanistic theories

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2019). Personality: Theory and research (14th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 5, “A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory of Personality” (pp. 127-146)
Chapter 6, “Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research” (pp. 147-179)Review these chapters of the text to support your Discussion post and Assignment in Week 3. Also note that the Week 3 Test for Understanding is based on the material in these chapters.

Goldfried, M. R. (2007). What has psychotherapy inherited from Carl Rogers? Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(3), 249–252.

Read this article on Rogers’ influence on the practice of therapy to expand your understanding of his ideas and contributions to the field of psychology.

Document: Carl Rogers Case Study (PDF)
Read this Case Study on Katherine for your Application Assignment

Websites

Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality theories: Abraham Maslow. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html

Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality theories: Carl Rogers. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html

These websites profile the two humanistic theorists featured this week. Access and read each profile to prepare for your Assignment in Week 3. The profile of Rogers can also support your Week 3 Discussion post.

Boeree, C. G. (2009). Personality theories: Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html

Note: You used this web profile in Week 2 for information on Freud. Review it again to support your Week 3 Discussion post.

Seidman, G. (2015, July 2). Close encounters: What can you learn about people from Facebook? [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/close-encounters/201507/what-can-you-learn-about-people-facebook
Read this online blog from the publication Psychology Today to help support your Discussion post in Week 3.

Required Media

TED (Producer). (2010). Chip Conley: Measuring what makes life worthwhile [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/chip_conley_measuring_what_makes_life_worthwhile.html (17:40)
Chip Conley, hotel founder and author, reflects on Maslow’s theories and explains his own interpretation. View the presentation to support your Week 3 Assignment.

Optional Resources

Qiu, L., Lu, J., Yang, S., Qu, W., & Zhu, T. (2015). What does your selfie say about you? Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 443–449. Retrieved from http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/linqiu/publications/selfie.pdf

Slaughter, S. (2015, December 12). Text me? Ping me? Communications overload in the digital age. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/13/style/text-me-ping-me-communications-overload-in-the-digital-age.html?_r=0

Note: Although not required reading, you may choose to use one or both articles to help prepare your Discussion post.

Discussion Spark

By Day 1

Read the Discussion Spark topic/question or comment posted by your Instructor in the Discussion Thread.

By Day 2

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a 1- to 2-paragraph response to the Discussion Spark.

Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:
Week 3 Discussion Spark Rubric

Read by Day 1 and Post by Day 2

To participate in this Discussion:
Week 3 Discussion Spark

Discussion: Freud and Rogers: Comparing Takes on Modern Life

Imagine both Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers transported to your community. Imagine them walking into a name-brand coffee shop and looking around. Virtually everyone is on a device. People sit side by side texting on their phones but rarely speaking. At some tables, individuals or small groups are capturing the moment by taking selfies. Many people work on laptops or tablets, including those who are busy checking their Facebook pages or other social media sites. Some upload their selfies to their own Facebook pages, to report their whereabouts, recommend the shop’s excellent brew, or share their latest challenge or achievement, to which Facebook friends respond with comfort or praise.

How would Freud respond to this activity? How would Rogers? In this Discussion, you will draw on the Learning Resources, as well as background information on the societies in which Freud and Rogers lived, to consider the influence of their setting on the way they viewed people and how they would likely explain common behaviors in modern American society.

To prepare:

  • Read the following background on the time periods and societies in which Freud and Rogers lived.
    • Sigmund Freud lived in a time of change that included a catastrophic world war that set the stage for an even bigger world war. Ten years after Freud’s birth in 1856, Austria went to war with Prussia in Germany. The result was the formation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which would expand and then disintegrate in the next 50 years. Freud was born into a wealthy, Jewish family and lived most of his life in Vienna, the Austrian capital. He would have been fully aware of the forces that marked profound changes in the 19th and early 20th centuries. He saw nationalist movements that destabilized the Austro-Hungarian Empire. World War I in 1914 was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Consider that of the 7.8 million Austro-Hungarian forces that fought in the war, 90 percent (7.02 million) were causalities—killed, wounded, missing, or taken prisoner. (See the Optional Resource, WWI Casualty and Death Tables, for these and additional statistics.) Freud also witnessed the rise of communism and fascism in Europe. When he died on September 23, 1939, Nazi Germany had invaded Poland and World War II had begun. As a Jew, he had left Vienna for England, where he died, to escape the Nazi threat. For comparison to the technology in the modern coffee shop, photography developed greatly in his lifetime, and the telephone was invented. But there were no computers or Internet or anything close to them. Telephones were not portable. And while there were hand-held cameras, they were nothing like the cell phone features of today.
    • The Learning Resources on Carl Rogers provide background on his life. Note that he spent much of his early life living on a farm in the U.S. Midwest—the opposite environment from Freud’s urban setting in a major European capital—and initially went to college to study agriculture and then the ministry before becoming a psychologist. Born at the start of the 20th century in 1902, Rogers witnessed tremendous change and development in his lifetime. He was 14 when World War I began and 37 at the start of World War II, from which America emerged as a major world power. He witnessed the Nuclear Age and its arms race, and the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union for nearly 50 years following World War II. He also saw the Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s Movement in the United States. In terms of technology, when he died in 1987, there were digital cameras, mobile phones, and laptop computers, although not of the convenient size, speed, and multiple features of current devices. The Internet was in primitive use, although social sites like Facebook had not yet been founded.
  • Reflecting on the settings in which Freud and Rogers lived and how they might view the following behaviors, choose one of these behaviors as the focus of your post:
    • Chronicling personal activity through selfies
    • Revealing personal/emotional lives on Facebook
    • Texting as a primary means of communicating with others
  • In addition to the background above, review Learning Resources on Rogers and Freud and the required article on Facebook related to your Discussion post.
  • Consider how both Freud and Rogers would explain the behavior you have selected.
By Day 3

Post a response that includes the following:

  • Describe the behavior that is the focus of your post. (Please note the selection in the post title.)
  • Analyze how both Freud and Rogers would explain this behavior. In your answer, explain how their views of personality as well as the life and times in which they lived would influence their thinking about the selected behavior.
  • Explain which theorist’s explanation you are in most agreement with, and why.

Note: Be sure to support the responses within your initial Discussion post (and in your colleague reply) with information obtained from the assigned Learning Resources, including in-text citations and a reference list for sources used. For information regarding how your Discussion will be evaluated, please review the grading rubric located in the Course Information area of the course.

By Day 5

Respond to at least one of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question and provide insight into how you would answer your question and why.
  • Ask a probing question and provide the foundation, or rationale, for the question.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by offering a new perspective or insight.
  • Agree with a colleague and offer additional (new) supporting information for consideration.
  • Disagree with a colleague by respectfully discussing and supporting a different perspective.

Support your reply to a colleague’s post with at least one reference (textbook or other scholarly, empirical resources). You may state your opinion and/or provide personal examples; however, you must also back up your assertions with evidence (including in-text citations) from the source and provide a reference.

Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:
Week 3 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:
Week 3 Discussion