Lucia Kiliso

English 111

Professor Jonathan Cook




The tittle of the article is on, HIV Infection and AIDS Among Young Women in South Africa. It is authored by Professor Adamson S. Muula and published by the Croatian Medical Journal in Year 2008. The article has been posted on National Center for Biotechnology Information ;


1. The article highlights the commonality of HIV Infection and AIDs among youthful women in South Africa.

Increased HIV vulnerability is associated with socioeconomic, legal, Political, cultural factors ,gender based violence and lack of sex education which elevates the exposure to risk situations and create barriers to accessing effective ,quality and affordable HIV prevention ,testing and treatment services.

Prevention and reduction of HIV infection can be achieved by limiting exposure to the above named risk factors.

3. I consider the source of this article credible because the author, Adamson .S. Muula is a renowned of Public Health and epidemiology at the University of Malawi, College of Medicine who has authored/co-authored more than 200 peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, some of which are published on a government registered website; This has not only showed he is knowledgeable but also that he is thorough in his work, by listing references of his work from eminent Google scholars like Zuma K ,Kleinschmidt I and World famous organisations including Uniting the World Against AIDS.

March 5, 2021 Proffessor Adamson. S Muula co-authored ‘ Depressive symptoms, HIV –related stigma and ART adherence among caregivers of children in vulnerable households in rural southern Malawi’. His dynamic and zest on matters on HIV/ AIDs shows his works are dependable sources of information I would need to answer my questions .


4/5. I choose this source because the information is understandable , relatable and relevant. Being a scholarly article ,it is valid based on strong evidences such as statistics showing ‘prevalence of HIV among South African 2 years old and older in 2005 based on race-ethnicity’. Its Publication on an international bimonthly peer-viewed Croatian medical journal further authenticates the content.

On March 5, 2021 Professor Adamson. S Muula co-authored ‘Depressive symptoms, HIV –related stigma and ART adherence among caregivers of children in vulnerable households in rural southern Malawi’. His dynamic and zest on matters on HIV/ AIDs shows his work is a dependable source of information I would need to answer my questions


1. The article is titled, Reducing the risk of HIV infection among South African sex workers: socioeconomic and gender barriers. It is co-authored by Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S. Karim , K. Soldan and M. Zondi. The article was first posted on a publication of the American Public Health Association on its website; then published online on October 7th, 2011.

2. This article summarizes the challenges of sex workers in their line of duty in regard to HIV infections.

Sex workers are predisposed to contracting HIV due to their vulnerability to socio- economic, legal, gender-based violence and lack of sex education amongst their clients.

It is paramount for sex workers and their clients to respond to HIV prevention programs, sex education and empowerment in the attempt to curb the increased rate of infection.

The highlighted method of prevention for this group is proper and consistent use of condoms.

3. I find the source credible since the citation describe the co-authors; Q A Karim, S S Karim, K Soldan, and M Zondi as renowned researchers at Centre for Epidemiological Research in South Africa (CERSA), South African Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa.

In addition, the article has been published on an organization’s website; It has also been published by American Journal of Health, which is widely known for its publication of authentic works in research in the field of public health. It has also been voted one of the most 100 influential journals in Biology and medicine over the last century.

4:Proffessor Quarraisha Abdool Karim who is a world’s leading AIDS researcher, was recently awarded the prestigious 2020 Christophe Merieux Prize for her dedicated support in research into infectious diseases in developing countries.

5.The article will be useful in my work as it discloses real time challenges faced by sex workers and their clients in the attempt to reduce HIV infections. Particularly, as highlighted in the three regions of Kenya, South Africa and Somali. The recommendations include to reduce the sex workers’ risk for HIV infection include negotiation and communication skills to enable them to persuade their clients to use condoms; development of strategies through which they can maximally use their group strength to facilitate unified action; and accessibility of protective methods they can use and control, such as intravaginal microbicides.





1.The headline of the article is South Africa Fears Millions More HIV Infections. It is authored by Barry Bearak. It has been published on New York Times, which has a global distribution.

2.The writer predicts a massive increase in the rate of HIV infections in South Africa over the next two decades.

Financial distress and negligence by the government of South Africa has been portrayed to be the constraining factors in containing the spread HIV. However, it is alarming that the South African government has not been keen and aggressive in sensitizing its people about HIV/AIDs infections as their former president advised on the use of conservative methods like consumption of beetroot and garlic in place of antiretroviral drugs.

3.The source is credible because author Barry Bearak is an American journalist, educator , reporter and a correspondent for the famous The New York Times, The Miami Herald and The Los Angeles Times. From Wikipedia, Barry Bearak has taught journalism as a visiting professor at the Colombia University Graduate School of Journalism.

4.I choose this piece of work because it has vividly highlighted the fear of increased number of HIV infections in South Africa in future. Its’ findings has strong answers to the research question.

5. It has boldly put out the challenges faced by the government and called it out for negligence of it’s mandate of civil education about HIV infections and use of antiretroviral medications.

“I think the budget is strained already” by Mr. Heywood