History 4

Answer the following questions using the textbook only (chapters 7 and 8).  Remember to cite your sources–I know it’s only one source this week, but it’s good practice! Foot Notes Only!

1) What was Jeffersonian Republicanism?  How did it differ from the prior Federalist administrations of Washington and Adams?

2) Why did the French want to sell Louisiana?  Why did Jefferson want to purchase it?

3) What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clarke expedition?  What role did Sacagawea play in that journey?

4) What were the primary causes of the War of 1812?  What were some of the consequences of that war?

5) What transportation technologies facilitated westward expansion and economic growth in the early-19th century?  In what ways were they important to growth and expansion?

6) What impact did immigration have on the national landscape in the first half of the 19th century?  What groups came in the largest numbers?  How were they generally received by US society?

7) How did industrial development impact people’s lives?  Give a few examples.  How did it impact women’s roles in society?

AMERICA

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R O

C K

Y

M O

U N

T A

I N

S

G R

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Mojave Desert

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Puget Sound

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.

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Helena

Lincoln

Austin

Santa Fe

Boise

Salt Lake City

Bismarck

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City

Carson City

Olympia

Denver

Salem

Sacramento

Pierre

Ft. Worth

Portland

Tucson

Wichita

Eugene Fargo

San Francisco

San Diego

Las Vegas

Dallas

Casper

Brownsville

Los Angeles

Seattle

Colorado Springs

San Antonio

Corpus Christi

Albuquerque

Billings

El Paso

Sioux Falls

Reno

Spokane

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Honolulu

Hilo

PACIFIC OCEAN

Hawaii

Niihau

Lanai Kahoolawe

Molokai Maui

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0 50 100 Miles

0 50 100 Kilometers

Juneau

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Anchorage

PA C I F I C O C E A N

Gulf of Alaska

Bering Strait

B E R I N G S E A

B E A U F O R T S E A

A l e

u t i a n I s l a n d s

Kodiak Island

Brooks Range

ALASKA

RUSSIA

CANADA

0 250 500 Miles

0 250 500 Kilometers

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Flor ida

K ey

s

Cape Canaveral

A P

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St. Paul

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Pittsburgh

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Fort Lauderdale

Wilmington

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Orlando

St. Louis

Charleston

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New Haven

Louisville

Cleveland

Knoxville

Detroit

Memphis

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Birmingham

Key West

Baltimore

Houston

Jacksonville

New Orleans

Green Bay

0 100 200 Miles

0 100 200 Kilometers

San Juan

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ATLANTIC OCEAN

CARIBBEAN SEA

St. John

St. Thomas

St. Croix

PUERTO RICO

BRITISH VIRGIN

ISLANDS

U.S. VIRGIN

ISLANDS

0 50 100 Miles

0 50 100 Kilometers

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South Georgia (U.K.)

Easter Island (Chile)

Marquesas Islands (Fr.)

Phoenix Islands

Bermuda (U.K.)

Canary Islands (Sp.)

Galápagos Islands

(Ecuador)

Pitcairn Islands (U.K.)

Falkland Islands (U.K.)

Victoria Island

Cook Islands

(N.Z.)

Aleutian Islan

ds Haida Gwaii

(Queen Charlotte Is.)

Azores (Port.)

B a f fi n I s l a n d

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MEXICO

GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR

COSTA RICA

JAMAICA CUBA

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UNITED STATES

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ST. KITTS AND NEVIS

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ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA DOMINICA BARBADOS

GRENADA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

GUYANA SURINAME

VENEZUELA

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PARAGUAY

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GAMBIA GUINEA-BISSAU

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Greenland (Den.)

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CÔTE D’IVOIRE BURKINA FASO

GHANA

Tahiti French Polynesia (Fr.)

French Guiana (Fr.)

Western Sahara (Morocco)

Gulf of Alaska

Hudson Bay

Beaufort Sea

Bering Sea

Gulf of Mexico

Caribbean Sea

Scotia Sea

Labrador Sea

Baffin Bay

Be rin

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it

A T L A N T I C

O C E A N

P A C I F I C

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A T L A N T I C

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0°20°W40°W60°W80°W100°W120°W140°W160°W

40°S

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P ri

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Rabat

Buenos Aires

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Ottawa

Santiago

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Mexico City

Asunción

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Washington, D.C.

Caracas

Apia La Paz

Sucre

Montevideo

London

Luxembourg

Dublin

Brussels

Riga

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Ankara

Lisbon Andorra la Vella

Chisinau

Vilnius Amsterdam

Zagreb

Tallinn Helsinki

Tirana

Warsaw

Stockholm Oslo

Copenhagen

Paris Kiev

Minsk

Prague

Berlin

Bern Ljubljana

Vienna Bratislava Budapest

Sarajevo Madrid

Rome Sofia

Belgrade Bucharest

Valletta

Athens

Nicosia

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Venice

Kaliningrad

Belfast

Barcelona

St. Petersburg

Moscow

Istanbul

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B al

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M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a

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Strait of Gibraltar

B a y o f B i s c a y

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Tyrrhenian Sea

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Sea of Crete

Aegean S ea

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Bothnia

A T L A N T I C

O C E A N

(SPAIN) (ITALY)

(FRANCE)

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KINGDOM England

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SWITZERLAND AUSTRIA HUNGARY

SLOVAKIA

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DENMARK

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SLOVENIA

SAN MARINO

MALTA TUNISIA

ALGERIA

MOROCCO

Crimea

A S I A

A F R I C A

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0 1,000 2,000 Miles

0 1,000 2,000 Kilometers

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Guam (U.S.)

Northern Mariana Islands

(U.S.)

New Caledonia

(Fr.)

Java

Réunion (Fr.)

North Island

South Island

Tasmania

Diego Garcia (U.K.)

New Siberian Islands

Svalbard (Norway)

Franz Josef Land Novaya Zemlya

Aleutian Islands

Sumatra

 

N OR

W AY

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W E

D EN

 

ITALY UZBEKISTANTURKMENISTAN

NEPAL

VIETN A

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UKRAINE

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SAUDI ARABIA

AFGHANISTAN

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BHUTAN

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JAPAN S. KOREA

KYRGYZSTAN

SRI LANKA

SINGAPORE

BRUNEI

IRAN

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NIGER

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BELARUS

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BULGARIA

GREECE

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North Sea

Barents Sea Kara Sea

Black Sea

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Bay of Bengal

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Sea

Lake Baikal

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I N D I A N O C E A N

P A C I F I C

O C E A N

ARCTIC OCEAN

20°E 40°E 60°E 80°E 100°E 120°E 140°E 160°E

40°S

20°S

40°N

20°N

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60°N

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Antarctic Circle

Wellington

Luanda

Canberra

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Beijing

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Kuala Lumpur

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Bangkok

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Moscow

Cape Town

Bloemfontein

Addis Ababa

Paris

Mumbai

A S I A

AFRICA

E U R O P E

UKRAINE

TURKEY

SAUDI ARABIA

AFGHANISTAN

TAJIKISTAN

BHUTAN

KYRGYZSTAN

IRAN

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CHINA

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EGYPT

SYRIA

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JORDAN IRAQ

OMAN BANGLADESH

U.A.E.

CYPRUS

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KUWAIT

QATAR

BAHRAIN

LEBANON

PAKISTAN NEPAL

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.

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us R

.

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New Delhi

Tehran

Astana

Kabul

Thimphu

Cairo

Dhaka

Kathmandu

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Ashgabat

Damascus

Nicosia

Beirut

Jerusalem Amman

Baghdad

Tashkent

Muscat

Islamabad

Moscow

Dushanbe

Doha Manama

Riyadh Abu Dhabi

Kuwait City

Ankara

Tbilisi

Yerevan Baku

Kiev

0 500 1,000 Miles

0 500 1,000 Kilometers

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AMERICA A Narrative History

David Emory Shi

n W. W. NORTON & COMPANY, INC.

New York • London

!b r i e f e l e v e n t h e d i t i o nvo l u m e 1

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FOR GEORGE B. TINDALL (1921–2006) HISTORIAN, COLLE AGUE, FRIEND

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DAV ID EMORY SHI is a professor of history and the president emeritus of Furman University. He also taught for seventeen years at Davidson College, where he chaired the history department, served as the Frontis Johnson Professor of History, and won the Distinguished Teaching Award. He is the author of several books on American cultural history, including the award-winning The Simple Life: Plain Living and High Thinking in American Culture, Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920, and The Bell Tower and Beyond: Reflections on Learning and Living.

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CONTENTS

List of Maps • xvii Preface • xix Acknowledgments • xxix

PAR T ONE A NOT-SO-“NEW” WORLD 1

1 The Collision of Cultures 4 Early Cultures in America 6 • European Visions of America 15 • Religious Conflict in Europe 21 • The Spanish Empire 27 • The Columbian Exchange 31 • The Spanish in North America 32 • Challenges to the Spanish Empire 40 • English Exploration of America 42

2 England’s Colonies 46 The English Background 48 • Religious Conflict and War 48 • American Colonies 50 • The English Civil War in America 69 • The Restoration in the Colonies 70 • The Middle Colonies and Georgia 73 • Native Peoples and English Settlers 83 • Slavery in the Colonies 87 • Thriving Colonies 90

3 Colonial Ways of Life 94 The Shape of Early America 96 • Society and Economy in the Southern Colonies 102 • Society and Economy in New England 103 • Society and Economy in the Middle Colonies 109 • Race-Based Slavery 112 • First Stirrings of a Common Colonial Culture 116 • Colonial Cities 117 • The Enlightenment in America 120 • The Great Awakening 123

xiii

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4 From Colonies to States 132 Competing Neighbors 134 • An Emerging Colonial System 139 • Warfare in the Colonies 140 • Regulating the Colonies 150 • The Crisis Grows 156 • The Spreading Conflict 165 • Independence 168

PAR T T WO BUILDING A NATION 179

5 The American Revolution, 1776–1783 182 Mobilizing for War 184 • American Society at War 192 • Setbacks for the British (1777) 194 • 1778: Both Sides Regroup 197 • A War of Endurance 206 • War as an Engine of Change 209 • The Social Revolution 212 • Slaves and the Revolution 214 • The Emergence of an American Nationalism 218

6 Strengthening the New Nation 222 Power to the People 223 • The Confederation Government 225 • The “Gathering Crisis” 230 • Creating the Constitution 232 • The Fight for Ratification 241 • The Federalist Era 245 • Hamilton’s Vision of a Prosperous America 250 • Foreign and Domestic Crises 257 • Western Settlement 263 • Transfer of Power 264 • The Adams Administration 265

7 The Early Republic, 1800–1815 274 Jeffersonian Republicanism 276 • War in Europe 290 • The War of 1812 294 • The Aftermath of the War 307

PAR T T HR EE AN EXPANDING NATION 315

8 The Emergence of a Market Economy, 1815–1850 318

The Market Revolution 320 • Industrial Development 330 • Popular Culture 339 • Immigration 341 • Organized Labor and New Professions 345

xiv Contents

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9 Nationalism and Sectionalism, 1815–1828 352 A New Nationalism 354 • Debates over the American System 358 • “An Era of Good Feelings” 359 • Nationalist Diplomacy 363 • The Rise of Andrew Jackson 367

10 The Jacksonian Era, 1828–1840 378 Jacksonian Democracy 380 • Jackson as President 382 • Nullification 393 • War over the B.U.S. 401 • Jackson’s Legacy 410

11 The South, Slavery, and King Cotton, 1800–1860 414

The Distinctiveness of the Old South 416 • The Cotton Kingdom 419 • Whites in the Old South 425 • Black Society in the South 429 • Forging a Slave Community 439

12 Religion, Romanticism, and Reform, 1800–1860 450

A More Democratic Religion 452 • Romanticism in America 463 • The Reform Impulse 473 • The Anti-Slavery Movement 485

PAR T F OUR A HOUSE DIVIDED AND REBUILT 4 9 9

13 Western Expansion, 1830–1848 502 Moving West 504 • The Mexican-American War 529

14 The Gathering Storm, 1848–1860 540 Slavery in the Territories 541 • California Statehood 546 • The Emergence of the Republican Party 556 • The Response in the South 569

Contents xv

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15 The War of the Union, 1861–1865 578 Choosing Sides 580 • Fighting in the West 591 • Fighting in the East 596 • Emancipation 598 • The War behind the Lines 608 • The Faltering Confederacy 614 • A Transformational War 632

16 The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 638 The War’s Aftermath in the South 640 • Debates over Political Reconstruction 642 • Black Society under Reconstruction 655 • The Grant Administration 664 • Reconstruction’s Significance 678

Glossary A1

Appendix A69

Further Readings A133

Credits A151

Index A155

xvi Contents

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MAPS

Columbus’s Voyages 18 Spanish Explorations of the Mainland 29 English, French, and Dutch Explorations 41 Early Maryland and Virginia 60 Early New England Settlements 63 Early Settlements in the South 71 The Middle Colonies 74 European Settlements and Indian Societies in Early North America 80 – 81 The African Slave Trade, 1500–1800 88 Atlantic Trade Routes 106 Major Immigrant Groups in Colonial America 110 North America, 1713 146 North America, 1763 147 Major Campaigns in New York and New Jersey, 1776–1777 191 Major Campaigns in New York and Pennsylvania, 1777 196 Western Campaigns, 1776–1779 200 Major Campaigns in the South, 1778–1781 205 Yorktown, 1781 206 North America, 1783 210 The Old Northwest, 1785 229 The Growth of Railroads, 1860 327 Population Density, 1820 336 Population Density, 1860 337 The Growth of Industry in the 1840s 338 The Missouri Compromise, 1820 362 The Election of 1828 372 Indian Removal, 1820–1840 386 The Election of 1840 409

xvii

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Cotton Production, 1821 422 Population Growth and Cotton Production, 1821–1859 423 The Slave Population, 1820 434 The Slave Population, 1860 435 Mormon Trek, 1830–1851 462 Wagon Trails West 505 Major Campaigns of the Mexican-American War 532 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 555 The Election of 1856 560 The Election of 1860 570 Secession, 1860–1861 581 Campaigns in the West, February–April 1862 593 The Peninsular Campaign, 1862 596 Campaigns in Virginia and Maryland, 1862 605 Campaigns in the East, 1863 619 Grant in Virginia, 1864–1865 625 Sherman’s Campaigns, 1864–1865 628 Reconstruction, 1865–1877 661

xviii Maps

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PREFACE

This Eleventh Edition of America: A Narrative History Brief Edition improves upon a textbook celebrated for its compelling narrative history of the American experience. Over the past thirty years, I have sought to write an engaging book centered on political and economic developments animated by colorful characters, informed by bal- anced analysis and social texture, and guided by the unfolding of key events. Those classic principles, combined with a handy size and low price, have helped make America: A Narrative History one of the most popular and well- respected textbooks in the field.

This Eleventh Brief Edition of America features important changes designed to make the text more teachable and classroom-friendly. The Eleventh Brief Edition is fifteen percent shorter than the Full Edition, and is a more affordable option for students. The overarching theme of the new edition is the importance of immigration to the American experience. Since 1776, the United States has taken in more people from more nations than any other country in the world. By welcoming newcomers, America has enriched its economy, diversified its people and culture, and testified to the appeal of a democracy committed to equal opportunity and equal treatment. Writer Vivian Gornick, the daughter of Russian Jewish immigrants, cherished the ethnic mosaic of her childhood New York City neighborhood: “The ‘otherness’ of the Italians or the Irish or the Jews among us lent spice and interest, a sense of definition, an exciting edge to things that was openly feared but secretly welcomed.” At times, however, the nation’s Open Door policy has also generated tension, criticism, prejudice, and even violence. Those concerned about immigration, past and present, have complained about open borders and called into question the nation’s ability to serve as the  world’s “melting pot.” The shifting attitudes and policies regarding immigration have testified to the continuing debate over the merits of newcomers. Immigration remains one of the nation’s most cherished yet contested values, and as such it deserves fresh emphasis in textbooks and classrooms. While an introductory textbook must necessarily focus on major political, constitutional, diplomatic, economic, and social changes, it is also essential to convey how ordinary people

xix

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managed everyday concerns—housing, jobs, food, recreation, religion, and entertainment—and surmounted exceptional challenges—depressions, wars, and racial injustice.

I have continued to enrich the political narrative by incorporating more social and cultural history into this new edition. The text has been updated to include the following key new discussions:

• Chapter 1 “The Collision of Cultures” highlights President John F. Kennedy’s emphasis on the United States as “a nation of immigrants,” and revised assessments of Christopher Columbus’s roles as colonial governor, ship captain, and slave trader.

• Chapter 2 “England’s Colonies” includes expanded coverage of the various factors that led Europeans to relocate to the American colonies, new discussion of the varied fates of British convicts and others who were sent involuntarily to America, the experience of indentured servants, and expanded focus on Chief Powhatan and his response to English colonists who were determined to “invade my people.”

• Chapter 3 “Colonial Ways of Life” features fresh insights into nativism and xenophobic sentiment toward German immigrants in the American colonies, including anti-immigrant comments from Benjamin Franklin in Pennsylvania; and discussion of the plight of immigrant women who worked in Virginia’s textile factories.

• Chapter 4 “From Colonies to States” includes new assessment of the small, but distinctive French immigration to North America before 1750; new focus on the massive surge in immigration and slave imports after the French and Indian War; and, new treatments of the first Revolutionary battles.

• Chapter 5 “The American Revolution” features new discussion of the system of enslaved labor during the War of Independence, the discriminatory legal status of African Americans, and British characterizations of American colonies as the “land of the free and the land of the slave.” There is also a profile of Thomas Jeremiah, a South Carolina “boatman” whom colonial authorities executed after he alerted enslaved blacks that British soldiers were coming to “help the poor Negroes.” The chapter also includes a new photo depicting free black soldiers fighting in the Revolution.

• Chapter 6 “Strengthening the New Nation” expands discussion of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and their involvement with slavery, features debates over immigration in the new nation, offers new perspective on Alexander Hamilton’s development as an

xx Preface

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immigrant to the United States, and includes new photos of naturalization in 1790.

• Chapter 7 “The Early Republic” includes expanded treatment of the Lewis and Clark expedition, of the strategic significance of the Louisiana Purchase, and the legacy of the War of 1812.

• Chapter 8 “The Emergence of a Market Economy” includes new discussions on anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiments during the first half of the nineteenth century, the changing dynamics among immigrants of different nationalities, and the challenges immigrant workers faced in forming unions. New photos that depict symbols of organized labor have been added.

• Chapter 9 “Nationalism and Sectionalism” features a revised profile of John Quincy Adams and fresh coverage of Henry Clay.

• Chapter 10 “The Jacksonian Era” includes expanded coverage of Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal policy, the Deposit and Distribution Act, the Specie Circular, and the Eaton Affair.

• Chapter 11 “The South, Slavery, and King Cotton” highlights the changing dynamics between slave labor and immigrant labor in the Old South and new coverage of sexual violence upon female slaves in the New Orleans slave trade and other regions.

• Chapter 12 “Religion, Romanticism, and Reform” includes revised discussions of religious awakenings, Mormonism, and transcendentalism, with expanded focus on transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau and Christian revivalist Peter Cartwright. The chapter also features social developments in women’s rights and the transition from gradualism to abolitionism among those opposed to slavery.

• Chapter 13 “Western Expansion” includes a new biographical sketch of John A. Sutter, the Swiss settler who founded a colony of European emigrants in California and created a wilderness empire centered on the gold rush. There is also expanded content on Irish and German immigrants in the Saint Patrick’s Battalion in the Mexican army. The chapter also reveals the development of John C. Calhoun’s race-based ideology following the Texas Revolution and includes a new photograph of the Donner party.

• Chapter 14 “The Gathering Storm” features new discussion of the California gold rush’s impact on the Native American population, new biographical material on Presidents James Buchanan and Abraham Lincoln, and expanded coverage of the Lincoln-Douglas debates.

• Chapter 15 “The War of the Union” discusses the substantial immigrant participation in the Civil War, features a new biographical sketch and

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photo of Private Lyons Wakeman—a young woman who disguised herself as a man in order to fight in the Union army.

• Chapter 16 “The Era of Reconstruction” explains changing immigration policy in the context of the Naturalization Act of 1870 and offers new treatments of Indian policies, Congressional Reconstruction, and the legacies of Reconstruction.

• Chapter 17 “Business and Labor in the Industrial Era” includes broader discussion of immigrant women, the contributions of inventors like Croatian immigrant Nikola Tesla, the relationship between immigration—especially Chinese immigration—and the railroad boom beginning in the 1860s. There is fuller coverage of immigrants and the settlement house movement, union organizers such as Eugene Debs, and textile mill and factory strikers.

• Chapter 18 “The New South and the New West” expands explanation of the spread of institutional racial segregation and the emergence of the southern tobacco industry after the Civil War.

• Chapter 19 “Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt” includes new coverage of the unemployed protesters who marched in Coxey’s Army protesting the recession of the late nineteenth century.

• Chapter 20 “Seizing an American Empire” includes expanded content and a new photo regarding Japanese immigration to the United States.

• Chapter 21 “The Progressive Era” features increased discussion of the social gospel movement and the women’s suffrage movement, new biographical material on Presidents Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson, and expanded focus on the racial biases of the Wilson administration.

• Chapter 22 “America and the Great War” includes expanded coverage of immigrants, including Italian American Tony Monanco, who fought in World War I; new coverage of Woodrow Wilson’s prosecution of immigrants who spread the poison of disloyalty during the war; nativism’s ties to racism and eugenics; and increased discussion of the Palmer raids.

• Chapter 23 “A Clash of Cultures” includes new discussion of flappers, the sexual revolution, and the new woman; revised treatments of Albert Einstein, scientific developments, and the impact of the radio; and, fresh insights into Ernest Hemingway and the “Lost Generation.”

• Chapter 24 “The Reactionary Twenties” expands discussion of reactionary conservatism and restrictive immigration policies; extends content on the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, prohibition, racial progressivism, and President Herbert Hoover’s financial and social policies; and adds new coverage of the Johnson-Reed Act.

xxii Preface

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• Chapter 25 “The New Deal” features expanded coverage of the New Deal’s impact on women and Native Americans; there is new material on President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s relationship with his wife Eleanor Roosevelt.

• Chapter 26 “The Second World War” includes expanded coverage of social and racial prejudice against African Americans and Japanese Americans; features a new discussion of army enlistment after the attack on Pearl Harbor; and a new set piece on the Battle of the Bulge.

• Chapter 27 “The Cold War and the Fair Deal” includes discussion of the Immigration and Nationality (McCarran-Walter) Act of 1952 within the contexts of the Red Scare and McCarthyism.

• Chapter 28 “America in the Fifties” highlights the emergence of a “car culture,” expanded discussion of the communist politics of Cuba, and bolstered coverage regarding Elizabeth Eckford, the student who attempted to enter Little Rock High School in Arkansas after the desegregation of public schools.

• Chapter 29 “A New Frontier and a Great Society” includes fresh coverage of the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, of the Logan Act regarding communication with foreign governments, and of U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy. It also features new set pieces highlighting the work of organizers Audre Lorde and Angela Davis, both of whom were involved with the Black Panther party.

• Chapter 30 “Rebellion and Reaction” features new discussions on the founding of the United Farm Workers and the organizing efforts of Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez, including Chavez’s twenty-five-day hunger strike in 1968 and the pathbreaking worker’s rights negotiations with grape growers in the 1970s. It also includes a new set piece spotlighting feminist pioneer and Ms. magazine founder Gloria Steinem, and another covering clinical psychology professor Timothy Leary’s crusade on behalf of psychedelic drugs.

• Chapter 31 “Conservative Revival” includes expanded discussion of the Carter administration, new coverage of the Immigration Act of 1990, and revised treatment of George H. W. Bush’s presidency.

• Chapter 32 “Twenty-First-Century America” includes new coverage and photos of the Black Lives Matter movement, the 2016 election, and the Me Too movement. New Trump administration coverage includes the efforts to restrict immigration and movement (travel ban, family separation, and increased border security); the proposed ban of transgender service members; and Supreme Court appointments.

Preface xxiii

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In addition, I have incorporated throughout this edition fresh insights from important new books and articles covering many significant topics. Whether you consider yourself a political, social, cultural, or economic historian, you’ll find new material to consider and share with your students.

As part of making the new editions even more teachable and classroom friendly, the new Eleventh Edition of America: A Narrative History also makes history an immersive experience through its innovative pedagogy and digital resources. Norton InQuizitive for History—W.  W. Norton’s groundbreaking, formative, and adaptive new learning program—enables both students and instructors to assess learning progress at the individual and classroom level. The Norton Coursepack provides an array of support materials—free to instructors—who adopt the text for integration into their local learning- management system. The Norton Coursepack includes valuable assessment and skill-building activities like new primary source exercises, review quizzes, and interactive map resources. In addition, we’ve created new Chapter Overview videos that give students a visual introduction to the key themes and historical developments they will encounter in each chapter (see pages xxiv– xxviii for information about student and instructor resources).

Media R esources for Instructors and Students America’s new student resources are designed to develop more-discriminating readers, guiding students through the narrative while simultaneously developing their critical thinking and history skills.

The comprehensive ancillary package features a groundbreaking new for- mative and adaptive learning system, as well as innovative interactive resources, including maps and primary sources, all designed to help students master the Focus Questions in each chapter and continue to nurture their work as historians. W. W. Norton is unique in partnering to develop these resources exclusively with subject-matter experts who teach the course. As a result, instructors have all the course materials needed to manage their U.S. history survey class, whether they are teaching face-to-face, online, or in a hybrid setting.

New! History Skills Tutorials With the Eleventh Edition we’ve expanded our digital resources to include a new series of tutorials to build students’ critical analysis skills. The History Skills Tutorials combine video and interactive assessments to teach students

xxiv Preface

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how to analyze documents, images, and maps. By utilizing a three-step process, students learn a framework for analysis through videos featuring David Shi, and then are challenged to apply what they have learned through a series of interactive assessments. The History Skills Tutorials can be assigned at the beginning of the semester to prepare students for analysis of the sources in the textbook and beyond, or they can be integrated as remediation tools throughout the semester.

New! Chapter Overview Videos New Chapter Overview Videos, featuring author David Shi, combine images and primary sources to provide visual introduction to the key themes and historical developments students will encounter in each chapter. These are in addition to the Author Videos in which David Shi explains essential developments and difficult concepts, with available closed captioning.

Norton InQuizitive for History This groundbreaking formative, adaptive learning tool improves student understanding of the Focus Questions in each chapter. Students receive personalized quiz questions on the topics with which they need the most help. Questions range from vocabulary and concepts to interactive maps and primary sources that challenge students to begin developing the skills necessary to do the work of a historian. Engaging game-like elements motivate students as they learn. As a result, students come to class better prepared to participate in discussions and activities.

Student Site Free and open to all students, the Student Site includes additional resources and tools.

• Author Videos: These segments include the NEW! Chapter Overview Videos and feature David Shi discussing essential developments and difficult concepts from the book.

• Online Reader: This resource offers a collection of primary source documents and images for use in assignments and activities.

• iMaps: Interactive maps allow students to view layers of information on each map with accompanying printable Map Worksheets for offline labeling.

Preface xxv

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Norton Ebooks Norton Ebooks give students and instructors an enhanced reading experience at a fraction of the cost of a print textbook. Students are able to have an active reading experience and can take notes, bookmark, search, highlight, and even read offline. As an instructor, you can add your own notes for students to see as they read the text. Norton ebooks can be viewed on—and synced between—all computers and mobile devices. The ebook for the Eleventh Edition includes imbedded Author Videos, including the new Chapter Overview Videos; pop-up key term definitions; and enlargeable images and maps.

Norton L MS R esources Easily add high quality Norton digital media to your online, hybrid, or lecture course—all at no cost. Norton Coursepacks work within your existing learning-management system; there’s no new system to learn, and access is free and easy. Content is customizable and includes:

• Author Videos: These segments include the NEW! Chapter Overview Videos and illuminate key events, developments, and concepts in each chapter by bringing the narrative to life with additional context and anecdotes.

• Primary Source Exercises: These activities feature primary sources with multiple-choice and short-response questions to encourage close reading and analysis.

• iMaps: These interactive tools challenge students to better understand the nature of change over time by allowing them to explore the different layers of maps from the book. Follow-up map worksheets help build geography skills by allowing students to test their knowledge by labeling.

• Review Quizzes: Multiple-choice and true/false questions allow students to test their knowledge of the chapter content and then identify where they need to focus their attention to better understand difficult concepts.

• Online Reader: This resource includes about 1,000 additional primary sources (textual and visual). These are also available grouped by Research Topic for further investigation and writing assignments.

• Flashcards: This tool aligns key terms and events with brief descriptions and definitions.

• Forum Prompts: Three to five suggested topics per chapter offer additional opportunities for class discussion.

xxvi Preface

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Instructor’s M an ual The Instructor’s Manual for America: A Narrative History, Eleventh Edition, is designed to help instructors prepare lectures. It contains chapter summaries; chapter outlines; lecture ideas; in-class activities; discussion questions; and a NEW! Quality Matters correlation guide.

Test Bank The Test Bank contains over 2,000 multiple-choice, true/false, and essay questions. The questions are aligned with the chapter’s Focus Questions and classified according to level of difficulty, and Bloom’s Taxonomy, offering multiple avenues for content and skill assessment. All Norton Test Banks are available with ExamView Test Generator software, allowing instructors to easily create, administer, and manage assessments.

Classroom Pr esentation Tools

• Lecture PowerPoint Slides: These ready-made presentations feature images and maps from the book as well as bullet points to encourage student comprehension and engagement.

• Image Files: All images and maps from the book are available separately in JPEG and PowerPoint format for instructor use.

• Norton American History Digital Archive: The archive includes over 1,700 images, audio and video files that are arranged chronologically and by theme.

Primary Source R eaders to Accompan y A merica: A Narr ative History

• NEW! Seventh Edition of For the Record: A Documentary History of America, by David E. Shi and Holly A. Mayer (Duquesne University), is the perfect companion reader for America: A Narrative History. For the Record now features 268 primary-source readings from diaries, journals, newspaper articles, speeches, government documents, and novels, including several readings that highlight the substantially updated theme of immigration history in this new edition of America. If you haven’t scanned For the Record in a while, now would be a good time to take a look.

Preface xxvii

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• Norton Mix: American History enables instructors to build their own custom reader from a database of nearly 300 primary- and secondary-source selections. The custom readings can be packaged as a standalone reader or integrated with chapters from America into a custom textbook.

xxviii Preface

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xxix

Milan Andrejevich, Ivy Tech College–South Bend

Carol A. Bielke, San Antonio Independent School District

April Birchfield, Asheville- Buncombe Technical Community College

Howard Bodner, Houston Community College

Matt Brent, Rappahannock Community College

Sharon J. Burnham, John Tyler Community College

Michael Collins, Texas State University

Scott Cook, Motlow State Community College

Carrie Coston, Blinn College Nicholas P. Cox, Houston

Community College Tyler Craddock, J. Sargeant

Reynolds Community College

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This Eleventh Edition of America: A Narrative History has been a team effort. Several professors who have become specialists in teaching the introductory survey course helped create the Test Bank, instruc-tor resources, and interactive media: David Cameron, Lone Star College–

University Park Brian Cervantez, Tarrant County

College–Northwest Campus Manar Elkhaldi, University of

Central Florida Christina Gold, El Camino

College

Maryellen Harman, North Central Missouri College

David Marsich, Germanna Community College

Lise Namikas, Baton Rouge Community College

Matthew Zembo, Hudson Valley Community College

The quality and range of the professorial reviews on this project were truly exceptional. The book and its accompanying media components were greatly influenced by the suggestions provided by the following instructors:

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Carl E. Creasman Jr., Valencia College

Stephen K. Davis, Texas State University

Frank De La O, Midland College Jim Dudlo, Brookhaven College Robert Glen Findley, Odessa College Brandon Franke, Blinn College Chad Garick, Jones County Junior

College Christopher Gerdes, Lone Star

College–Kingwood and CyFair Mark S. Goldman, Tallahassee

Community College Abbie Grubb, San Jacinto College–

South Campus Devethia Guillory, Lone Star

College–North Harris Jennifer Heth, Tarrant County

College–South Campus Justin Hoggard, Three Rivers College Andrew G. Hollinger, Tarrant

County College David P. Hopkins Jr., Midland

College Justin Horton, Thomas Nelson

Community College Theresa R. Jach, Houston

Community College Robert Jason Kelly, Holmes

Community College

Jennifer Lang, Delgado Community College

Nina McCune, Baton Rouge Community College

Richard Randall Moore, Metropolitan Community College–Longview

Ken S. Mueller, Ivy Tech College– Lafayette

Lise Namikas, Colorado State University–Global

Brice E. Olivier, Temple College Candice Pulkowski, The Art

Institutes Shane Puryear, Lone Star College–

Greenspoint and Victory Centers Carey Roberts, Liberty University John Schmitz, Northern Virginia

Community College–Annandale Greg Shealy, University of

Wisconsin–Madison Thomas Summerhill, Michigan

State University Christopher Thomas, J. Sargeant

Reynolds Community College Scott M. Williams, Weatherford

College Laura Matysek Wood, Tarrant

County College–Northwest Crystal R. M. Wright, North

Central Texas College

As always, my colleagues at W.  W. Norton shared with me their dedicated expertise and their poise amid tight deadlines, especially Jon Durbin, Melissa Atkin, Lily Gellman, Carson Russell, Sarah Rose Aquilina, Ben Reynolds, Sarah England Bartley, Hope Goodell Miller, Travis Carr, and Marne Evans. In addition, Jim Stewart, a patient friend and consummate editor, helped winnow my wordiness.

Finally, I have dedicated this Eleventh Edition of America to George B. Tindall, my friend and co-author who until his death in 2006 shared his wisdom, knowledge, wit, and humor with me. Although few of his words remain in this book, his spirit continues to animate its pages.

xxx Acknowledgments

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THE NORTON STORY

W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

xxxi

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AMERICA

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A NOT- SO-

1

History is filled with ironies. Luck and

accidents—the unexpected happenings

of life—often shape events more than

intentions do. Long before Christopher Columbus happened upon

the Caribbean Sea in search of a westward passage to the Indies

(east Asia), the native peoples he mislabeled “Indians” had occu-

pied and transformed the lands of the Western Hemisphere (also

called the Americas—North, Central, and South) for thousands of

years. The “New World” was thus new only to the Europeans who

began exploring, conquering, and exploiting the region at the end

of the fifteenth century.

!p a r t o n e

“NEW” WORLD

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2

Over time, indigenous peoples had devel- oped hundreds of strikingly different societies. Some were rooted in agriculture; others focused

on trade or conquest. Many Native Americans (also called Amerindians) were healthier, better

fed, and lived longer than Europeans, but when the two societies—European and Native American—

collided, Amerindians were often exploited, infected, enslaved, displaced, and exterminated.

Yet the conventional story of invasion and occupation oversimplifies the process by which Indians, Europeans, and Africans interacted in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Native Americans were more than passive victims of European power; they were also trading partners and military allies of the transatlantic newcomers. They became neighbors and advisers, religious con- verts and loving spouses. As such, they participated actively in the creation of the new society known as America.

The European colonists who risked their lives to settle in the Western Hemisphere were a diverse lot. They came from Spain, Portugal, France, the British Isles, the Netherlands (Holland), Scandinavia, Italy, and the German states. (Germany would not become a united nation until the mid– nineteenth century.) What they shared was a presumption that Christianity was supe- rior to all religions and that all other peoples were inferior to them and their culture.

A variety of motives inspired Europeans to undertake the harrowing trans- atlantic voyage. Some were fortune seekers lusting for gold, silver, and spices. Others were eager to create kingdoms of God in the New World. Still others were adventurers, convicts, debtors, servants, landless peasants, and political or religious exiles. Most were simply seeking opportunities for a better life. A settler in Pennsylvania noted that workers “here get three times the wages for their labor than they can in England.”

Yet such wages never attracted enough workers to keep up with the rapidly expanding colonial economies, so Europeans eventually turned to Africa for their labor needs in the New World. Beginning in 1503, European nations— especially Portugal and Spain—transported captive Africans to the Western Hemisphere. Throughout the sixteenth century, slaves were delivered to ports as far south as Chile to as far north as Canada. Thereafter, the English and Dutch joined the effort to exploit enslaved Africans. Few Europeans saw the contradiction between the promise of freedom in America for themselves and the institution of race- based slavery.

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3

The intermingling of people, cultures, plants, animals, microbes, and dis- eases from the continents of Africa, Europe, and the Western Hemisphere gave colonial American society its distinctive vitality and variety. The shared quest for a better life gave America much of its drama—and conflict.

The Europeans unwittingly brought to the Americas a range of infectious diseases that would prove disastrous for the indigenous peoples—who had no natural immunities to them—and no knowledge of how to cope with them. As many as 90 percent of Native Americans would eventually die from European- borne diseases. Proportionally, it would be the worst human death toll in history.

At the same time, bitter rivalries among the Spanish, French, English, and Dutch triggered costly wars in Europe and around the world. Amid such con- flicts, the monarchs of Europe struggled to manage often- unruly colonies, which, as it turned out, played crucial roles in their frequent wars.

Many of the colonists displayed a feisty independence, which led them to resent government interference in their affairs. A British official in North Carolina reported that the colonists were “without any Law or Order. Impu- dence is so very high, as to be past bearing.”

The colonists and their British rulers maintained an uneasy partnership throughout the seventeenth century. As the royal authorities tightened their control during the mid– eighteenth century, however, they met resistance, which exploded into revolution.

3

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The Collision of Cultures

1

De Soto and the Incas This 1596 color engraving shows Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto’s first encounter with King Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. Although artist Theodor de Bry never set foot in North America, his engravings helped shape European perceptions of Native Americans in the sixteenth century.

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A merica was born in melting ice. Tens of thousands of years ago, during a period known as the Ice Age, immense glaciers some two miles thick inched southward from the Arctic Circle at the top of the globe. The advancing ice crushed hills, rerouted rivers, gouged

out lakebeds and waterways, and scraped bare all the land in its path. The glacial ice sheets covered much of North America—Canada, Alaska,

the Upper Midwest, New England, Montana, and Washington. Then, as the continent’s climate began to warm, the ice slowly started to melt, year after year, century after century. As the ice sheets receded, they opened pathways for the first immigrants to roam the continent.

Debate still rages about when and how humans first arrived in North America. Yet one thing is certain: the ancestors of every person living in the United States originally came from somewhere else. America is indeed “a nation of immigrants,” a society of striving people attracted by a mythic new world promising new beginnings and a better life in a new place of unlimited space. Geography may be destiny, as the saying goes, but without pioneering people of determination and imagination, geography would have destroyed rather than sustained the first Americans.

Until recently, archaeologists had assumed that ancient peoples from northeast Asia began following herds of large game animals across the Bering Strait, a waterway that now connects the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. During the Ice Age, however, the Bering Strait was dry—a treeless, windswept, frigid tundra that connected eastern Siberia with Alaska.

The place with the oldest traces of human activity in the Bering region is Broken Mammoth, a 14,400- year- old site in central Alaska where the first

5

1. Why were there so many diverse societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived?

2. What major developments in Europe enabled the Age of Exploration?

3. How did the Spanish conquer and colonize the Americas?

4. How did the Columbian Exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds affect both societies?

5. In what ways did the Spanish form of colonization shape North American history?

focu s question s

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6 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

aboriginal peoples, called Paleo- Indians (Ancient Indians), arrived in North America. More recently, archaeologists in central Texas unearthed evidence of people dating back almost 16,000 years.

Over thousands of years, as the climate kept warming and the glaciers and ice sheets continued to melt, small nomadic groups fanned out from Alaska on foot or in boats and eventually spread across the Western Hemisphere, from the Arctic Circle to the southern tip of South America. The Paleo- Indians lived in transportable huts with wooden frames covered by animal skins or grasses (“thatch”).

Paleo- Indians were skilled hunters and gatherers in search of game ani- mals, whales, seals, fish, and wild plants, berries, nuts, roots, and seeds. As they moved southward, they trekked across prairies and plains, working in groups to track and kill massive animals unlike any found there today: mam- moths, mastodons, giant sloths, camels, lions, saber- toothed tigers, cheetahs, and giant wolves, beavers, and bears.

Recent archaeological discoveries in North and South America, however, suggest that prehistoric humans may have arrived thousands of years earlier from various parts of Asia. Some may even have crossed the Pacific and Atlan- tic Oceans in boats from Polynesian islands in the southern Pacific or from southwestern Europe.

Regardless of when, where, or how humans first set foot in North America, the continent eventually became a dynamic crossroads for adventurous peo- ples from around the world, all bringing with them distinctive backgrounds, cultures, technologies, religions, and motivations that helped form the multi- cultural society known as America.

Early Cultur es in America Archaeologists have labeled the earliest humans in North America the Clovis peoples, named after a site in New Mexico where ancient hunters killed tusked woolly mammoths using “Clovis” stone spearheads. Over the centuries, as the climate warmed, days grew hotter and many of the larg- est mammals—mammoths, mastodons, and camels—grew extinct. Hunters then began stalking more- abundant mammals: deer, antelope, elk, moose, and caribou.

Over time, the Ancient Indians adapted to their diverse environments— coastal forests, grassy plains, southwestern deserts, eastern woodlands. Some continued to hunt with spears and, later, bows and arrows; others fished

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Early Cultures in America 7

or trapped small game. Some gathered wild plants and herbs and collected acorns and seeds, while others farmed using stone hoes. Most did some of each.

By about 7000 b.c.e. (before the Common Era), Native American societies began transforming into farming cultures, supplemented by seasonal hunting and gathering. Agriculture provided reliable, nutritious food, which accel- erated population growth and enabled once nomadic people to settle in vil- lages. Indigenous peoples became expert at growing plants that would become the primary food crops of the hemisphere, chiefly maize (corn), beans, and squash, but also chili peppers, avocados, and pumpkins.

Maize- based societies viewed corn as the “gift of the gods” because it pro- vided many essential needs. They made hominy by soaking dried kernels in a mixture of water and ashes and then cooking it. They used corn cobs for fuel and the husks to fashion mats, masks, and dolls. They also ground the kernels into cornmeal, which could be mixed with beans to make protein- rich succotash.

Mayan society A fresco depicting the social divisions of Mayan society. A Mayan high priest, at the center, is ceremonially dressed.

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8 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

The M ayans, Incas, and Mexica Around 1500 b.c.e., farming towns appeared in what is now Mexico. Agricul- ture supported the development of sophisticated communities complete with gigantic temple- topped pyramids, palaces, and bridges in Middle America (Mesoamerica, what is now Mexico and Central America). The Mayans, who dominated Central America for more than 600 years, developed a written lan- guage and elaborate works of art. Mayan civilization featured sprawling cities, hierarchical government, terraced farms, and spectacular pyramids.

Yet in about a.d. 900, the Mayan culture collapsed. Why it disappeared remains a mystery, but a major factor was ecological. The Mayans destroyed much of the rain forest, upon whose fragile ecosystem they depended. As an archaeologist has explained, “Too many farmers grew too many crops on too much of the landscape.” Widespread deforestation led to hillside erosion and a catastrophic loss of nutrient- rich farmland.

Overpopulation added to the strain on Mayan society, prompting civil wars. The Mayans eventually succumbed to the Toltecs, a warlike people who con- quered most of the region in the tenth century. Around a.d. 1200, however, the Toltecs mysteriously withdrew after a series of droughts, fires, and invasions.

the incas Much farther south, many diverse people speaking at least twenty different languages made up the sprawling Inca Empire. By the fif- teenth century, the Incas’ vast realm stretched 2,500  miles along the Andes Mountains in the western part of South America. It featured irrigated farms, stone buildings, and interconnected networks of roads made of stone.

the mexica (aztecs) During the twelfth century, the Mexica ( Me- SHEE- ka)—whom Europeans later called Aztecs (“People from Aztlán,” the place they claimed as their original homeland)—began drifting south- ward from northwest Mexico. Disciplined, determined, and aggressive, they eventually took control of central Mexico, where in 1325 they built the city of Tenochtitlán (“place of the stone cactus”) on an island in Lake Tetzcoco, at the site of present- day Mexico City.

Tenochtitlán would become one of the grandest cities in the world. It served as the capital of a sophisticated Aztec Empire ruled by a powerful emperor and divided into two social classes: noble warriors and priests (about 5 percent of the population) and the free commoners—merchants, craftsmen, and farmers.

When the Spanish invaded Mexico in 1519, they found a vast Aztec Empire connected by a network of roads serving 371 city- states organized into

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Early Cultures in America 9

38 provinces. Towering stone temples, broad paved avenues, thriving market- places, and some 70,000 adobe (sunbaked mud) huts dominated Tenochtitlán. As the empire expanded across central and southern Mexico, the Aztecs devel- oped elaborate societies supported by detailed legal systems and a complicated political structure. They advanced efficient new farming techniques, including terracing of fields, crop rotation, large- scale irrigation, and other engineering marvels. Their arts flourished, their architecture was magnificent. Their rulers were invested with godlike qualities, and nobles, priests, and warrior- heroes dominated the social order. The emperor’s palace had 100 rooms and 100 baths replete with amazing statues, gardens, and a zoo; the aristocracy lived in large stone dwellings, practiced polygamy (multiple wives), and were exempt from manual labor.

Like most agricultural peoples, the Mexica were intensely spiritual and worshipped multiple gods. Their religious beliefs focused on the inter- connection between nature and human life and the sacredness of natural elements—the sun, moon, stars, rain, mountains, rivers, and animals. They believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves to create the sun, moon, people, and maize. They were therefore obliged to feed the gods, especially Huitzilopochtli, the Lord of the Sun and War, with the vital energy provided by human hearts and blood. So the Mexica, like most Mesoamerican societ- ies, regularly offered live human sacrifices.

Warfare was a sacred ritual for the Mexica, but it involved a peculiar sort of combat. Warriors fought with wooden swords—to wound rather than kill; they wanted live captives to sacrifice to the gods and to work as slaves. Gradu- ally, the Mexica conquered many neighboring societies, forcing them to make payment of goods and labor as tribute to the empire.

In elaborate weekly rituals, captured warriors or virgin girls would be daubed with paint, given a hallucinatory drug, and marched up many steps to the temple platform, where priests cut out the victims’ beating hearts and offered them to the sun god. The constant need for human sacrifices fed the Mexica’s relentless warfare against other indigenous groups. A Mexica song cel- ebrated their warrior code: “Proud of itself is the city of Mexico- Tenochtitlán. Here no one fears to die in war. This is our glory.”

North A merican Civilizations North of Mexico, in the present- day United States, many indigenous societ- ies blossomed in the early 1500s. Over the centuries, small kinship groups (clans) had joined together: first to form larger bands involving hundreds of people, which then evolved into much larger regional groups, or tribes, whose

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10 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

members spoke the same language. Although few had an alphabet or written language, the different societies developed rich oral traditions that passed on spiritual myths and social beliefs, especially those concerning the sacredness of nature, the necessity of communal living, and a deep respect for elders.

Like the Mexica, most indigenous peoples believed in many “spirits.” To the Sioux, God was Wakan Tanka, the Great Spirit, who ruled over all spirits. The Navajo believed in the Holy People: Sky, Earth, Moon, Sun, Thunders, Winds, and Changing Woman. Many Native Americans believed in ghosts, who acted as their bodyguards in battle.

The importance of hunting to many Indian societies helped nurture a warrior ethic in which courage in combat was the highest virtue. War dances the night before a hunt or battle invited the spirits to unleash magical powers. Yet, Native American warfare mostly consisted of small- scale raids intended to enable individual warriors to demonstrate their courage rather than to seize territory or destroy villages. Casualties were minimal. Taking a few captives often signaled victory.

Diverse Societies For all their similarities, the indigenous peoples of North America developed markedly different ways of life. In North America alone in 1492, when the first Europeans arrived, there were perhaps several million native peoples orga- nized into 240 different societies speaking many different languages.

These Native Americans practiced diverse customs and religions, passed on distinctive cultural myths, and developed varied economies. Some wore clothes they had woven or made using animal skins, and still others wore nothing but colorful paint, tattoos, or jewelry. Some lived in stone houses, oth- ers in circular timber wigwams or bark- roofed longhouses. Still others lived in sod- covered or reed- thatched lodges, or in portable tipis made from animal skins. Some cultures built stone pyramids graced by ceremonial plazas, and others constructed huge burial or ritual mounds topped by temples.

Few North American Indians permitted absolute rulers. Tribes had chiefs, but the “power of the chiefs,” reported an eighteenth- century British trader, “is an empty sound. They can only persuade or dissuade the people by the force of good- nature and clear reasoning.” Likewise, Henry Timberlake, a British sol- dier, explained that the Cherokee government, “if I may call it a government, which has neither laws nor power to support it, is a mixed aristocracy and democracy, the chiefs being chosen according to their merit in war.”

For Native Americans, exile from the group was the most feared pun- ishment. They owned land in common rather than individually as private property, and they had well- defined social roles. Men were hunters, warriors,

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Early Cultures in America 11

and leaders. Women tended children; made clothes, blankets, jewelry, and pot- tery; cured and dried animal skins; wove baskets; built and packed tipis; and grew, harvested, and cooked food. When the men were away hunting or fight- ing, women took charge of village life. Some Indian nations, like the Cherokee and Iroquois, gave women political power.

the southwest The arid (dry) Southwest ( present- day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah) featured a landscape of high mesas, deep canyons, vast deserts, long rivers, and snow- covered mountains that hosted corn- growing societies. The Hopis, Zunis, and others still live in the multistory adobe cliff- side villages (called pueblos by the Spanish), which were erected by their ancient ancestors.

About 500 c.e. (Common Era), the Hohokam (“those who have vanished”) people migrated from Mexico northward to southern and central Arizona, where they built extensive canals to irrigate crops. They also crafted decorative pottery and turquoise jewelry, and constructed temple mounds (earthen pyra- mids used for sacred ceremonies).

The most widespread and best known of the Southwest pueblo cultures were the Anasazi (Ancient Ones), or Basketmakers. Unlike the Aztecs and Incas, however, Anasazi society did not have a rigid class structure. The Ana- sazi engaged in warfare only as a means of self- defense, and the religious lead- ers and warriors worked much as the rest of the people did.

the northwest Along the narrow coastal strip running up the heav- ily forested northwest Pacific coast, shellfish, salmon, seals, whales, deer, and edible wild plants were abundant. Here, there was little need to rely on farm- ing. In fact, many of the Pacific Northwest peoples, such as the Haida, Kwak- iutl, and Nootka, needed to work only two days to provide enough food for a week.

Such population density enabled the Pacific coast cultures to develop intri- cate religious rituals and sophisticated woodworking skills. They carved tow- ering totem poles featuring decorative figures of animals and other symbolic characters. For shelter, they built large, earthen- floored, cedar- plank houses up to 500 feet long, where groups of families lived together. They also created sturdy, oceangoing canoes made of hollowed- out red cedar tree trunks—some large enough to carry fifty people. Socially, they were divided into slaves, com- moners, and chiefs. Warfare was usually a means to acquire slaves.

the great plains The many tribal nations living on the Great Plains, a vast, flat land of cold winters and hot summers west of the Missis- sippi River, included the Arapaho, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow,

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12 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

Apache, and Sioux. As nomadic hunter- gatherers, they tracked herds of buffa- loes (technically called bison) across a sea of grassland, collecting seeds, nuts, roots, and berries as they roamed.

At the center of most hunter- gatherer religions is the idea that the hunted animal is a willing sacrifice provided by the gods (spirits). To ensure a success- ful hunt, these nomadic peoples performed sacred rites of gratitude before- hand. Once a buffalo herd was spotted, the hunters would set fires to drive the stampeding animals over cliffs, often killing far more than they could harvest and consume.

the mississippians East of the Great Plains, in the vast woodlands reaching from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean, several “ mound- building” cultures prospered. Between 700 b.c.e. and 200 c.e., the Adena and later the Hopewell societies developed communities along rivers in the Ohio Val- ley. The Adena- Hopewell cultures grew corn, squash, beans, and sunflowers, as well as tobacco for smoking. They left behind enormous earthworks and elabo- rate burial mounds shaped like snakes, birds, and other animals, several of which were nearly a quarter mile long.

Like the Adena, the Hopewell developed an extensive trading network with other Indian societies from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada, exchanging

Great Serpent Mound More than 1,300 feet in length and three feet high, this snake- shaped burial mound in Adams County, Ohio, is the largest of its kind in the world.

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Early Cultures in America 13

exquisite carvings, metalwork, pearls, seashells, copper ornaments, bear claws, and jewelry. By the sixth century, however, the Hopewell culture disappeared, giving way to a new phase of development east of the Mississippi River, the Mississippian culture.

The Mississippians were corn- growing peoples who built substantial agri- cultural towns around central plazas and temples. They developed a far- flung trading network that extended to the Rocky Mountains, and their ability to grow large amounts of corn in the fertile flood plains spurred rapid population growth around regional centers.

cahokia The largest of these advanced regional centers, called chief- doms, was Cahokia (600–1300 c.e.), in southwest Illinois, near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers (across from what is now St.  Louis). The Cahokians constructed an enormous farming settlement with monu- mental public buildings, spacious ceremonial plazas, and more than eighty flat- topped earthen mounds with thatch- roofed temples on top. The largest of the mounds, called Monks Mound, was ten stories tall, encompassed fourteen acres, and required 22 million cubic feet of soil. At the height of its influence, Cahokia hosted 15,000 people on some 3,200 acres, making it the largest city north of Mexico.

Cahokia, however, vanished around 1300 c.e., and its people dispersed. Its collapse remains a mystery, but the overcutting of trees to make fortress walls may have set in motion ecological changes that doomed the community when a massive earthquake struck. The loss of trees led to widespread flooding and the erosion of topsoil, which finally forced people to seek better lands. As Cahokia disappeared, its former residents took its advanced ways of life to other areas across the Midwest and into what is now the American South.

Easter n Woodlands Peoples After the collapse of Cahokia, the Eastern Woodlands peoples spread along the Atlantic Seaboard from Maine to Florida and along the Gulf coast to Louisiana. They included three regional groups distinguished by their dif- ferent languages: the Algonquian, the Iroquoian, and the Muskogean. These were the indigenous societies that Europeans would first encounter when they arrived in North America.

the algonquians The Algonquian- speaking peoples stretched westward from the New England Seaboard to lands along the Great Lakes and into the Upper Midwest and south to New Jersey, Virginia, and the Carolinas.

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14 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

They lived in small, round wigwams or in multifamily longhouses surrounded by a tall palisade, a timber fence to defend against attackers. Their villages typically ranged in size from 500 to 2,000 people.

The Algonquians along the Atlantic coast were skilled at fishing and gath- ering shellfish; the inland Algonquians excelled at hunting. They often traveled the region’s waterways using canoes made of hollowed- out tree trunks (dug- outs) or birch bark.

All Algonquians foraged for wild food (nuts, berries, and fruits) and prac- ticed agriculture to some extent, regu- larly burning dense forests to improve soil fertility and provide grazing room for deer. To prepare their vegetable gar- dens, women broke up the ground with hoes tipped with sharp clamshells or the shoulder blades from deer. In the spring, they cultivated corn, beans, and squash.

the iroquoians West and south of the Algonquians were the powerful Iroquoian- speaking peoples (including the Seneca, Onondaga, Mohawk, Oneida, and Cayuga nations,

as well as the Cherokee and Tuscarora), whose lands spread from upstate New  York southward through Pennsylvania and into the upland regions of the Carolinas and Georgia. The Iroquois were farmer/hunters who lived in extended family groups (clans), sharing bark- covered longhouses in towns of 3,000 or more people. The oldest woman in each longhouse served as the “clan mother.”

Unlike the Algonquian culture, in which men were dominant, women held the key leadership roles in the Iroquoian culture. As an Iroquois elder explained, “In our society, women are the center of all things. Nature, we believe, has given women the ability to create; therefore it is only natural that

Algonquian in war paint From the notebook of English settler John White, this sketch depicts a Native American chieftain.

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European Visions of America 15

women be in positions of power to protect this function.” A French priest who lived among the Iroquois for five years marveled that “nothing is more real than women’s superiority. . . . It is they who really maintain the tribe.”

Iroquois men and women operated in separate social domains. No woman could be a chief; no man could head a clan. Women selected the chiefs, con- trolled the distribution of property, supervised the slaves, and planted and harvested the crops. They also arranged marriages. After a wedding ceremony, the man moved in with the wife’s family. In part, the Iroquoian matriarchy reflected the frequent absence of Iroquois men, who as skilled hunters and traders traveled extensively for long periods, requiring women to take charge of domestic life.

eastern woodlands indians The third major Native Amer- ican group in the Eastern Woodlands included the peoples along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico who farmed and hunted and spoke the Muskogean lan- guage: the Creek,  Choctaw, Chickasaw,  Seminole, Natchez, Apalachee, and Timucua. Like the Iroquois, they were often matrilineal societies, meaning that ancestry flowed through the mother’s line, but they had a more rigid class structure. The Muskogeans lived in towns arranged around a central plaza. Along the Gulf coast, many of their thatch- roofed houses had no walls because of the mild winters and hot, humid summers.

Over thousands of years, the native North Americans had displayed remarkable resilience, adapting to the uncertainties of frequent warfare, changing climate, and varying environments. They would display similar resil- ience against the challenges created by the arrival of Europeans.

European Visions of America The European exploration of the Western Hemisphere resulted from several key developments during the fifteenth century. Dramatic intellectual changes and scientific discoveries, along with sustained population growth, trans- formed religion, warfare, family life, and national economies. In addition, the resurgence of old vices—greed, conquest, exploitation, oppression, racism, and slavery—helped fuel European expansion abroad.

By the end of the fifteenth century, medieval feudalism’s agrarian social system, in which peasant serfs worked for local nobles in exchange for living on and farming the land, began to disintegrate. People were no longer forced to remain in the same area and keep the same social status in which they were born. A new “middle class” of profit- hungry bankers, merchants, and investors

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16 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

emerged. They were committed to a more dynamic commercial economy fueled by innovations in banking, currency, accounting, and insurance.

The growing trade- based economy in Europe freed kings from their dependence on feudal nobles, enabling the monarchs to unify the scattered cities ruled by princes (principalities) into large kingdoms with stronger, more- centralized governments. The rise of towns, cities, and a merchant class provided new tax revenues. Over time, the new class of monarchs, merchants, and bankers displaced the landed nobility.

This process of centralizing political power was justified in part by claims that European kings ruled by divine right rather than by popular mandate: since God appointed them, only God, not the people, could hold them respon- sible for their actions.

the renaissance At the same time, the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman writings about representative government (republics) spurred the Renaissance (rebirth), an intellectual revolution that transformed the arts as well as traditional attitudes toward religion and science. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread across western Europe, bringing with it a more sec- ular outlook that took greater interest in humanity than in religion. Rather than emphasizing God’s omnipotence, Renaissance humanism highlighted the power of inventive people to exert their command over nature.

The Renaissance was an essential force in the transition from medievalism to early modernism. From the fifteenth century on, educated people through- out Europe began to challenge prevailing beliefs as well as the absolute author- ity of rulers and churchmen. They discussed controversial new ideas, engaged in scientific research, and unleashed their artistic creativity. In the process, they fastened on a new phrase—“to discover”—which first appeared in 1553. Voyages of exploration became voyages of discovery.

The Renaissance also sparked the Age of Exploration. New knowledge and new technologies made possible the construction of larger sailing ships capable of oceanic voyages. The development of more accurate magnetic com- passes, maps, and navigational instruments such as astrolabes and quadrants helped sailors determine their ship’s location. The fifteenth and sixteenth cen- turies also brought the invention of gunpowder, cannons, and firearms—and the printing press.

the rise of global trade By 1500, trade between western European nations and the Middle East, Africa, and Asia was booming. The Portuguese took the lead, bolstered by crews of expert sailors and fast, three- masted ships called caravels. Portuguese ships roamed along the west coast of

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European Visions of America 17

Africa collecting grains, gold, ivory, spices, and slaves. Eventually, these mar- iners continued around Africa to the Indian Ocean in search of the fabled Indies (India and Southeast Asia). They ventured on to China and Japan, where they found spices (cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, black pepper) to enliven bland European food, sugar made from cane to sweeten food and drink, silk cloth, herbal medicines, and other exotic goods.

Global trade was enabled by the emergence of four powerful nations in western Europe: England, France, Portugal, and, especially, Spain. The arranged marriage of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1469 unified their two kingdoms into one formidable new nation, Spain. How- ever, for years thereafter, it remained a loose confederation of separate king- doms and jurisdictions, each with different cultural and linguistic traditions.

The new king and queen were eager to spread the Catholic faith. On January 1, 1492, after nearly eight centuries of warfare between Spanish Chris- tians and Moorish Muslims on the Iberian Peninsula, Ferdinand and Isabella declared victory for Catholicism at Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in southern Spain. The monarchs then set about instituting a fifteenth- century version of ethnic cleansing. They gave practicing Muslims and Jews living in Spain and Portugal one choice: convert to Catholicism or leave.

The forced exile of Muslims and Jews was one of many factors that enabled Europe’s global explorations at the end of the fifteenth century. Other factors— urbanization, world trade, the rise of centralized nations, advances in knowledge, technology, and firepower—all combined with natural human curiosity, greed, and religious zeal to spur efforts to find alternative routes to the Indies. More immediately, the decision of Chinese rulers to shut off the land routes to Asia in 1453 forced merchants to focus on seaborne options. For these reasons, Euro- peans set in motion the events that, as one historian has observed, would bind together “four continents, three races, and a great diversity of regional parts.”

The Voyages of Columbus Born in the Italian seaport of Genoa in 1451, the son of a woolen weaver, Christopher Columbus took to the sea at an early age, teaching himself geog- raphy, navigation, and Latin. By the 1480s, he was eager to spread Christianity across the globe and win glory and riches for himself.

The tall, red- haired Columbus spent a decade trying to convince European rulers to finance a western voyage across the Atlantic. England, France, Portu- gal, and Spain turned him down. Yet he persevered and eventually persuaded Ferdinand and Isabella to fund his voyage. The monarchs agreed to award him a one- tenth share of any riches he gathered; they would keep the rest.

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crossing the atlantic On August  3, 1492, Columbus and a crew of ninety men and boys, mostly from Spain but from seven other nations as well, set sail on three tiny ships, the Santa María, the Pinta, and the Niña. They traveled first to Lisbon, Portugal, and then headed west to the Canary Islands, where they spent a month loading supplies and making repairs. On September 6, they headed west across the open sea, hoping desperately to sight the shore of east Asia. By early October, worried sailors rebelled at the “mad- ness” of sailing blindly and forced Columbus to promise that they would turn back if land were not sighted within three days.

Then, on October 12, a sailor on watch atop the masthead yelled, “Tierra! Tierra!” (“Land! Land!”). He had spotted a small island in the Bahamas east

COLUMBUS’S VOYAGES

■ How many voyages did Columbus make to the Americas? ■ What is the origin of the name for the Caribbean Sea? ■ What happened to the colony that Columbus left on Hispaniola in 1493?

1 4 9 2

1 4 9 3

1 4 9 8

1 5 0 2

N O R T H A M E R I C A

S O U T H A M E R I C A

A F R I C A

ENGLAND

SPAIN

FRANCE

PORTUGAL

CENTRAL AMERICA

GULF OF

MEXICO

CARIBBEAN SEA

A T L A N T I C

O C E A N

PACIFIC OCEAN

AZORES

BAHAMAS

San Salvador

Jamaica Hispaniola

Cuba

Trinidad

LESSER ANTILLES

CANARY ISLANDS

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS

WWN64 America 10e 2 6593_01map_04 First proof

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European Visions of America 19

of Florida that Columbus named San Salvador (Blessed Savior). Columbus mistakenly assumed that they must be near the Indies, so he called the native people “Indios” and named the surrounding islands the West Indies. At every encounter with the peaceful native people, known as Tainos, his first question, using sign language, was whether they had gold. If they did, the Spaniards seized it; if they did not, the Europeans forced them to search for it.

The Tainos, unable to understand or repel the strange visitors, offered gifts of food, water, spears, and parrots. Columbus described them as “ well- built, with good bodies, and handsome features”— brown- skinned, with straight black hair. He marveled that they could “easily be made Christians” and “would make fine servants,” boasting that “with fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” He promised to bring six “natives” back to Spain for “his highnesses.” Thus began the typical European bias toward the Indians: the belief that they were inferior peoples worthy of being exploited and enslaved.

exploring the caribbean After leaving San Salvador, Colum- bus, excited by native stories of “rivers of gold” to the west, landed on the north shore of Cuba. He exclaimed that it was the “most beautiful land human eyes have ever beheld.”

After a few weeks, Columbus sailed to the island he named Hispaniola (“the Spanish island”), present- day Haiti and the Dominican Republic. He described the island’s indigenous people as the “best people in the world,” full “of love and without greed.” They had no weapons, wore no clothes, and led a simple life, cultivating cassava plants to make bread but spending most of their time relaxing, “seemingly without a care in the world.”

Columbus decided that the Indians were “fitted to be ruled and be set to work” generating riches for Spain. He decreed that all Indians over age 14 must bring him at least a thimbleful of gold dust every three months. As it turned out, the quota was often unattainable—there was not as much gold in the Caribbean as Columbus imagined. Nevertheless, those who failed to supply enough gold had their hands cut off, causing many of them to bleed to death. If they fled, they were hunted down by dogs. Huge numbers died from overwork or disease. Others committed suicide. During fifty years of Spanish control, the Indians on Hispaniola virtually disappeared. In their place, the Spanish began importing enslaved Africans.

At the end of 1492, Columbus, still convinced he had reached an outer island of Japan, sailed back to Spain, taking a dozen Tainos as gifts for the king and queen. After receiving a hero’s welcome, he promised Ferdinand and Isabella that his discoveries would provide them “as much gold as they need . . . and as many slaves as they ask.”

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Thanks to the newly invented printing press, news of Columbus’s path- breaking voyage spread rapidly across Europe and helped spur a restless desire to explore the world. The Spanish monarchs told Columbus to prepare for a second voyage, instructing him to “treat the Indians very well and lovingly and abstain from doing them any injury.” Columbus and his men would repeatedly defy this order.

Spain worked quickly to secure its legal claim to the Western Hemisphere. With the help of the Spanish- born pope, Alexander VI, Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). It divided the non- Christian world, giving most of the Western Hemisphere to Spain, with Africa and what would become Brazil granted to Portugal. In practice, this meant that while Spain developed its American empire in the sixteenth century, Portugal provided it with most of its enslaved African laborers.

In 1493, Columbus returned to the New World, crossing the Atlantic with seventeen ships and 1,400 sailors, soldiers, and settlers—all men. Also on board were Catholic priests eager to convert the native peoples to Christianity. Upon his arrival back in Hispaniola, Columbus discovered that the forty men he had left behind had lost their senses, raping women, robbing villages, and, as his son later added, “committing a thousand excesses for which they were mortally hated by the Indians.”

naming america Columbus proved to be a much better ship captain than a colonizer and governor. His first business venture in the New World was as a slave trader. When he returned to Spain from his second voyage with hundreds of captive Indians, Queen Isabella, who detested slavery, was hor- rified. “Who is this Columbus who dares to give out my vassals [Indians] as slaves?”

This incident set in motion a series of investigations into Columbus’s behavior. The queen sent a Spanish royal commissioner, Francis Bobadilla, to Hispaniola. The first things he saw were the corpses of six Spanish settlers hanging from a gallows; more colonists were to be hanged the next day. Boba- dilla was so shocked that he canceled the executions and announced that he was supplanting Columbus as governor. When Columbus objected, Bobadilla had him jailed for two months before shipping the explorer, now nearly blind and crippled by arthritis, back to Spain in chains in 1500.

To the end of his life, in 1506, Columbus insisted that he had discovered the outlying parts of Asia. By one of history’s greatest ironies, this led Europe- ans to name the New World not for Columbus but for another Italian sailor- explorer, Amerigo Vespucci.

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Religious Conflict in Europe 21

In 1499, with the support of Portugal’s monarchy, Vespucci sailed across the Atlantic, landing first at Brazil and then sailing along 3,000  miles of the South American coastline in search of a passage to Asia. In the end, Vespucci decided that South America was so large and so densely populated that it must be a new continent. In 1507, a German mapmaker paid tribute to Vespucci’s navigational skills by labeling the New World using the feminine Latin variant of the explorer’s first name: America.

professional explorers News of the remarkable voyages of Columbus and Vespucci stimulated more expeditions. The first explorer to sight the North American continent was John Cabot, an Italian sponsored by King Henry VII of England. Cabot’s landfall in 1497 at what the king called “the new founde lande,” in present- day Canada, gave England the basis for a later claim to all of North America. On a return voyage, however, Cabot and his four ships disappeared.

The English were actually unaware that Norsemen (“Vikings”) from Scan- dinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) had been the first Europeans to “dis- cover” and colonize areas of North America. As early as the tenth century, Norsemen had landed on the rocky, fogbound shore of Greenland, a large island off the northeast coast of North America, and established farming set- tlements that had lasted hundreds of years before disappearing after prolonged cold weather forced them back to Scandinavia.

R eligious Conflict in Europe While explorers were crossing the Atlantic, powerful religious conflicts were tearing Europe apart in ways that would shape developments in the Western Hemisphere. When Columbus sailed west in 1492, all of Europe acknowledged the thousand- year- old supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church and its pope in Rome. The pope led a huge religious empire, and the Catholics were eager to spread their faith around the world.

The often brutal efforts of the Spanish to convert native peoples in the  Western Hemisphere to Roman Catholicism illustrated the murder- ous intensity with which European Christians embraced religious life in the  sixteenth century. Spiritual concerns inspired, comforted, and united them. People fervently believed in heaven and hell, demons and angels, magic and miracles. And they were willing to kill and die for their religious beliefs.

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22 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

M artin Luther The enforced unity of Catholic Europe began to crack on October  31, 1517, when an obscure, thirty- three- year- old German monk who taught at the University of Wittenberg in the Ger- man state of Saxony, sent his ninety- five “theses” on the “corrupt” Catholic Church to church officials. Little did Martin Luther (1483–1546) know that his defiant stance and explosive charges would ignite history’s fiercest spiritual drama, the Protestant Reformation, or that his controversial ideas would forever change the Christian world and plunge Europe into decades of reli- gious strife.

Luther was a spiritual revolutionary who fractured Christianity by under- mining the authority of the Catholic Church. He called the pope “the great- est thief and robber that has appeared or can appear on earth” who had sub- jected the Christian family to levels of “satanic” abuse. Luther especially criticized the widespread sale of indul- gences, whereby priests would forgive sins in exchange for money. The Cath-

olic Church had made a profitable business out of forgiving sins, using the rev- enue from indulgences to raise huge armies and build lavish cathedrals. Luther condemned indulgences as a crass form of thievery. He insisted that God alone, through the grace and mercy of Christ, offered salvation; people could not purchase it from church officials. As Luther exclaimed, “By faith alone are you saved!” To him, the Bible was the sole source of Christian truth; believers had no need for the “den of murderers”—Catholic priests, bishops, and popes.

Through this simple but revolutionary doctrine of “Protestantism,” Luther sought to revitalize Christianity’s original faith and spirituality. The common people, he declared, represented a “priesthood of all believers.” Individuals could seek their own salvation. “All Christians are priests,” he said; they “have the power to test and judge what is correct or incorrect in matters of faith” by

Martin Luther A theologian and critic of the Catholic Church, Luther is best remembered for his ninety- five “theses,” an incendiary document that served as a catalyst for the Protestant revolution.

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Religious Conflict in Europe 23

themselves. Luther went on to produce the first Bible in a German translation so that everyone—male or female, rich or poor—could read it.

Luther’s rebellion spread quickly across Europe thanks to the circulation of thousands of inexpensive pamphlets, which served as the social media of the time. Without the new printing presses, there may not have been a Protestant Reformation.

Lutheranism began as an intense religious movement, but it soon devel- oped profound social and political implications. By proclaiming that “all” are equal before God, Protestants disrupted traditional notions of wealth, class, and monarchical supremacy. Their desire to practice a faith independent of papal or government interference contributed to the ideal of limited govern- ment. By the end of the sixteenth century, King James VI of Scotland grew nervous that his Protestant subjects were plotting to install a “democratic form of government.”

the catholic reaction What came to be called Lutheranism quickly found enthusiastic followers, especially in the German- speaking states. In Rome, however, Pope Leo X lashed out at Luther’s “dangerous doctrines,” calling him “a leper with a brain of brass and a nose of iron.”

Luther, aware that his life was at stake, fought back, declaring that he was “born to war” and refusing to abide by any papal decrees: “I will recant noth- ing!” The “die is cast, and I will have no reconciliation with the Pope for all eternity.” When the pope expelled Luther from the Catholic Church in 1521 and the Holy Roman emperor sentenced him to death, civil war erupted throughout the German principalities. A powerful prince protected Luther from the church’s wrath by hiding him in his castle.

Luther’s conflict with the pope plunged Europe into decades of religious warfare during which both sides sought to eliminate dissent by torturing and burning at the stake those called “heretics.” A settlement between Lutherans and Catholics did not come until 1555, when the Treaty of Augsburg allowed each German prince to determine the religion of his subjects. For a while, they got away with such dictatorial policies, for most people still deferred to ruling princes. Most of the northern German states, along with Scandinavia, became Lutheran.

John Calvin If Martin Luther was the lightning that sparked the Reformation, John Calvin provided the thunder. Soon after Luther began his revolt against Catholicism, Swiss Protestants also challenged papal authority. In Geneva, a city of 16,000

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24 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

people, the movement looked to John Calvin (1509–1564), a brilliant French theologian and preacher who had fled from Catholic France to Geneva at age twenty- seven and quickly brought it under the sway of his powerful beliefs.

Calvin deepened and broadened the Reformation that Luther initiated by developing a strict way of life for Protestants to follow. His chief contribution was his emphasis upon humanity’s inherent sinfulness and utter helplessness before an awesome and all- powerful God who had predetermined who would be saved and who would be left to eternal damnation, regardless of their behavior.

Calvin and Luther were the twin pillars of early Protestantism, but whereas Luther was a volatile personality who loved controversy and debate, Calvin was a cool, calculating, analytical theorist who sought to create a Protestant absolutism rigidly devoid of all remnants of Catholicism. Under his leader- ship, Geneva became a theocracy in which believers sought to convince them- selves and others that God had chosen them for salvation.

Calvin came to rule Geneva with uncompromising conviction. He sum- moned the citizenry to swear allegiance to a twenty- one- article confession of religious faith. No citizen could be outside the authority of the church, and Calvin viewed himself as God’s appointed judge and jury. No aspect of life in Geneva escaped his strict control. Dancing, card- playing, and theatergo- ing were outlawed. Censorship was enforced, and informers were recruited to report wrongdoing. Visitors staying at inns had to say a prayer before dining. Everyone was required to attend church and to be in bed by nine o’clock. Even joking was outlawed.

Calvin urged that some thirty “witches” in Geneva be burned, drowned, or hanged for supposedly causing an epidemic. Overall, he had fifty- eight people put to death. Calvin also banished scores of people who fell short of his demanding standards, including members of his extended family. He exiled his sister- in- law for adultery and ordered his stepdaughter jailed for fornica- tion. “I have found it to be true,” observed a witty Genevan, “that men who know what is best for society are unable to cope with their families.”

calvinism For all of its harshness, Calvinism as embodied in Geneva spread like wildfire across France, Scotland, and the Netherlands. It even penetrated Lutheran Germany. Calvinism formed the basis for the German Reformed Church, the Dutch Reformed Church, the Presbyterians in Scot- land, and the Huguenots in France, and it prepared the way for many forms of American Protestantism. Like Luther, Calvin argued that Christians did not need popes or kings, archbishops, and bishops to dictate their search for salva- tion; each congregation should elect its own elders and ministers to guide their worship and nurture their faith.

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Religious Conflict in Europe 25

Over time, Calvin exerted a greater effect upon religious belief and prac- tice in the English colonies than did any other leader of the Reformation. His emphasis on humankind’s essential depravity, his concept of predestination, his support for the primacy and autonomy of each congregation, and his belief in the necessity of theocratic government formed the ideological foundation for Puritan New England.

the counter- reformation The Catholic Church furiously resisted the emergence of new “protestant” faiths by launching a “ Counter- Reformation” that reaffirmed basic Catholic beliefs while addressing some of the concerns about priestly abuses raised by Luther, Calvin, and others. In Spain, the monarchy established an “Inquisition” to root out Protestants and heretics. In 1534, a Spanish soldier, Ignatius de Loyola, organized the Society of Jesus, a militant monastic order created to revitalize Catholicism. Its mem- bers, the black- robed Jesuits, fanned out across Europe and the Americas as missionaries and teachers.

Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Catholics and Prot- estants persecuted, imprisoned, tortured, and killed each other. Every major international conflict in early modern Europe became, to some extent, a reli- gious holy war between Catholic and Protestant nations.

the reformation in england In England, the Reforma- tion followed a unique course. The Church of England (the Anglican Church) emerged through a gradual process of integrating Calvinism with English Catholicism. In early modern England, the Catholic church and the national government were united and mutually supportive. The monarchy required people to attend religious services and to pay taxes to support the church. The English rulers also supervised the church officials: two archbishops, twenty- six bishops, and thousands of parish clergy, who were often instructed to preach sermons in support of government policies. As one English king explained, “People are governed by the pulpit more than the sword in time of peace.”

king henry viii The English Reformation originated because of purely political reasons. King Henry VIII, who ruled between 1509 and 1547, had won from the pope the title Defender of the Faith for initially refut- ing Martin Luther’s rebellious ideas. But Henry turned against the Catholic Church over the issue of divorce. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon, his elder brother’s widow and the youngest daughter of the Spanish monarchs Fer- dinand and Isabella, had produced a girl, Mary, but no boy. Henry’s obsession for a male heir convinced him that he needed a new wife, and he had grown

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26 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

smitten with another woman, sharp- witted Anne Boleyn. But first he had to convince the pope to annul, or cancel, his twenty- four- year marriage to Cath- erine, who rebelled against her husband’s plan. She had a powerful ally in her nephew, Charles V, king of Spain and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, whose armies were in control of the church in Rome.

The pope refused to grant an annulment—in part because Charles V had placed him under arrest to encourage him to make the right decision. In 1533, Henry VIII responded by severing England’s nearly 900-year connec- tion with the Catholic Church. The archbishop of Canterbury then granted the annulment, thus freeing Henry to marry his mistress, the pregnant Anne Boleyn. The pope then excommunicated Henry from the Catholic Church, whereupon Parliament passed an Act of Supremacy declaring that the king, not the pope, was head of the Church of England. Henry quickly banned all Catholic “idols,” required Bibles to be published in English rather than Latin, and confiscated the vast land holdings of the Catholic Church across England.

In one of history’s greatest ironies, Anne Boleyn gave birth not to a male heir but to a daughter named Elizabeth. The disappointed king refused to attend the baby’s christening. Instead, he accused Anne of adultery and had her beheaded, and he declared the infant Elizabeth a bastard. (He would marry four more times.) Elizabeth, however, would grow up to be a nimble, cunning, and courageous queen.

the reign of elizabeth In 1547, Henry VIII died and was suc- ceeded by nine- year- old Edward VI, his son by his third wife, Jane Seymour. Edward approved efforts to further “reform” the Church of England. Priests were allowed to marry, church services were conducted in English rather than Latin, and new articles of faith were drafted and published.

When Edward grew gravely ill in 1553, he declared that his cousin, Lady Jane Grey, should succeed him, but nine days after his death, his Catholic half- sister, Mary, led an army that deposed Lady Jane and later ordered her beheaded. The following year, Queen Mary shocked many by marrying Philip, the Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain. With his blessing, she restored Catholic supremacy in England, ordering hundreds of Protestants burned at the stake and others exiled.

“Bloody Mary” died in 1558, and her Protestant half- sister, Henry VIII’s daughter Elizabeth, ascended the throne at the age of twenty- five. Over the next forty- five years, despite political turmoil, religious strife, economic crises, and foreign wars, Elizabeth proved to be one of the greatest rulers in history. During her long reign, the Church of England again became Protestant, while retaining much of the tone and texture of Catholicism.

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The Spanish Empire 27

The Spanish Empire Throughout the sixteenth century, Spain struggled to manage its colonial empire while trying to repress the Protestant Reformation. Between 1500 and 1650, some 450,000 Spaniards, 75 percent of them poor, single, unskilled men, made their way to the Western Hemisphere. During that time, Spain’s colonies in the Western Hemisphere shipped some 200 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of silver to Spain. By plundering, conquering, and colonizing the Americas and converting and enslaving its inhabitants, the Spanish planted Christianity in the Western Hemisphere and gained the financial resources to rule the world.

spain in the caribbean The Caribbean Sea served as the gateway through which Spain entered the Americas. After establishing a trading post on Hispaniola, the Spanish proceeded to colonize Puerto Rico (1508), Jamaica (1509), and Cuba (1511–1514). Their motives, as one soldier explained, were simple: “To serve God and the king, and also to get rich.” As their New World colonies grew more numerous, the monarchy created an administrative struc- ture to govern them and a name to encompass them: New Spain.

A Clash of Cultur es The often- violent encounters between Spaniards and Native Americans involved more than a clash of cultures. They involved contrasting forms of tech- nological development. The Indians of Mexico used wooden canoes for water transportation, while the Europeans traveled in much larger, heavily armed sail- ing vessels. The Spanish ships also carried warhorses and fighting dogs, long steel swords, crossbows, firearms, gunpowder, and armor. “The most essential thing in new lands is horses,” reported one Spanish soldier. “They instill the greatest fear in the enemy and make the Indians respect the leaders of the army.”

cortés’s conquest The most dramatic European conquest of a major Indian civilization occurred in Mexico. On February 18, 1519, Hernán Cortés, a Spanish soldier of fortune who went to the New World “to get rich, not to till the soil like a peasant,” sold his Cuban lands to buy ships and sup- plies, then set sail for Mexico.

Cortés’s fleet of eleven ships carried nearly 600 soldiers and sailors. Also on board were 200 indigenous Cuban laborers, sixteen warhorses, greyhound fighting dogs, and cannons. The Spanish first stopped on the Yucatan Penin- sula, where they defeated a group of Mayans. The vanquished chieftain gave Cortés twenty young women. Cortés distributed them to his captains but kept one of the girls (“La Malinche”) for himself and gave her the name of Doña

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28 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

Marina. Malinche spoke Mayan as well as Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, with whom she had previously lived. She became Cortés’s  interpreter—and his mistress; she would later bear the married Cortés a son.

After leaving Yucatan, Cortés and his ships sailed west and landed at a place he named Veracruz (“True Cross”), where they convinced the local Totomacs to join his assault against their hated rivals, the Mexica (Aztecs). To prevent his soldiers, called conquistadores (conquerors), from deserting, Cortés had the ships scuttled, sparing only one vessel to carry the expected gold back to Spain.

With his small army and Indian allies, Cortés brashly set out to conquer the extensive Mexica Empire, which extended from central Mexico to what is today Guatemala. The army’s nearly 200-mile march through the mountains to the Mexica capital of Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City) took almost three months.

spanish invaders As Cortés and his army marched across Mexico, they heard fabulous stories about Tenochtitlán. With some 200,000 inhabi- tants scattered among twenty neighborhoods, it was one of the largest cities in the world. Laid out in a grid pattern on an island in a shallow lake, divided by long cobblestone avenues, crisscrossed by canals, connected to the mainland by wide causeways, and graced by formidable stone pyramids, the city and its massive buildings seemed impregnable.

Through a combination of threats and deceptions, the Spanish entered Tenoch- titlán peacefully. The emperor, Montezuma II, a renowned warrior who had ruled since 1502, mistook Cortés for the exiled god of the wind and sky, Quetzalcoatl,

Cortés in Mexico Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a historical narrative from the sixteenth century. The scene, in which Cortés is shown seated on a throne, depicts the arrival of the Spanish in Mexico.

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The Spanish Empire 29

come to reclaim his lands. Montezuma gave the Spaniards a lavish welcome, hous- ing them close to the palace and exchanging gifts of gold and women.

Within a week, however, Cortés executed a palace coup, taking Monte- zuma hostage while outwardly permitting him to continue to rule. Cortés ordered many religious statues destroyed and coerced Montezuma to end the ritual sacrifices of slaves.

In the spring of 1520, disgruntled Mexica priests orchestrated a rebellion after deciding that Montezuma was a traitor. According to Spanish accounts, the Mexica stoned the emperor to death; more recently, scholars argue that the Spanish did the deed. One account says that they poured molten gold down Montezuma’s throat. Whatever the cause of the emperor’s death, the Spaniards were forced to retreat from the capital city.

SPANISH EXPLORATIONS OF THE MAINLAND

■ What were the Spanish conquistadores’ goals for exploring the Americas? ■ How did Cortés conquer the Mexica? ■ Why did the Spanish first explore North America, and why did they establish

St. Augustine, the first European settlement in what would become the United States?

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30 CHAPTER 1 The Collision of Cultures

Cortés, however, was undaunted. His many Indian allies remained loyal, and the Spaniards gained reinforcements from Cuba. They then laid siege to Tenochtitlán for eighty- five days, cutting off its access to water and food, and allowing a smallpox epidemic to devastate the inhabitants.

After three months, the siege came to a bloody end in August  1521. The ravages of smallpox and the support of thousands of anti- Mexica Indians help explain how such a small force of Spaniards vanquished a proud nation with millions of people. A conquistador remembered that as he entered the capital city after its surrender, the streets “were so filled with sick and dead people that our men walked over nothing but bodies.

Cortés became the first Governor General of “New Spain” and quickly began replacing the Mexica leaders with Spanish bureaucrats and church offi- cials. He ordered that a grand Catholic cathedral be built from the stones of Montezuma’s destroyed palace.

In 1531, Francisco Pizarro mimicked the conquest of Mexico when he led a band of 168 conquistadores and sixty- seven horses down the Pacific coast of South America from Panama toward Peru, where they brutally subdued the Inca Empire and its 5  million people. The Spanish killed thousands of Inca warriors, seized imperial palaces, took royal women as mistresses and wives, and looted the empire of its gold and silver. From Peru, Spain extended its control southward through Chile and north to present- day Colombia.

new spain As the sixteenth century unfolded, the Spanish shifted from looting the native peoples to enslaving them. To reward the conquistadores, Spain transferred to America a medieval socioeconomic system known as the encomienda, whereby favored soldiers or officials received huge parcels of land—and control over the people who lived there. The Spanish were to Christianize the Indians and provide them with protection in exchange for “tribute”—a share of their goods and labor.

New Spain became a society of extremes: wealthy encomenderos and pow- erful priests at one end of the spectrum, and Indians held in poverty at the other. The Spaniards used brute force to ensure that the Indians accepted their role as serfs. Nuño de Guzman, a governor of a Mexican province, loved to watch his massive fighting dog tear apart rebellious Indians. But he was equally brutal with Spanish colonists. After a Spaniard talked back to him, he had the man nailed to a post by his tongue.

a catholic empire The Spanish launched a massive effort to convert the Indians into Catholic servants. During the sixteenth century, hun- dreds of priests fanned out across New Spain.

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The Columbian Exchange 31

Most of the missionaries decided that the Indians could be converted only by force. “Though they seem to be a simple people,” a priest declared in 1562, “they are up to all sorts of mischief, and without compulsion, they will never speak the [religious] truth.” By the end of the sixteenth century, there were more than 300 monasteries or missions in New Spain, and Catholicism had become a major instrument of Spanish imperialism.

Some officials criticized the forced conversion of Indians and the encomienda system. A Catholic priest, Bartolomé de Las Casas, observed with horror the treatment of Indians by Spanish settlers in Hispaniola and Cuba. To ensure obedience, they tortured, burned, and cut off the hands and noses of the native peoples. Las Casas resolved in 1514 to spend the rest of his life aiding the Indians, and he began urging the Spanish to change their approach.

Las Casas spent the next fifty years advocating better treatment for indig- enous people, earning the title “Protector of the Indians.” He urged that the Indians be converted to Catholicism only through “peaceful and reasonable” means, and he eventually convinced the monarchy and the Catholic Church to issue new rules calling for better treatment of the Indians. Still, the use of “fire and the sword” continued, and angry colonists on Hispaniola banished Las Casas from the island. In 1564, two years before his death, he bleakly predicted that “God will wreak his fury and anger against Spain some day for the unjust wars waged against the Indians.”

The Columbian Exchange The first European contacts with the Western Hemisphere began the Colum- bian Exchange, a worldwide transfer of plants, animals, and diseases, which ultimately worked in favor of the Europeans at the expense of the indigenous peoples.

The plants and animals of the two worlds differed more than the peoples and their ways of life. Europeans had never encountered iguanas, buffaloes, cougars, armadillos, opossums, sloths, tapirs, anacondas, rattlesnakes, catfish, condors, or hummingbirds. Nor had the Native Americans seen the horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens, and rats that soon flooded the Americas.

the exchange of plants and foods The exchange of plant life between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa transformed the diets of both regions. Before Columbus’s voyage, Europeans had no knowledge of maize (corn), potatoes (sweet and white), or many kinds of beans (snap, kidney, lima). Other Western Hemisphere food plants included

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peanuts, squash, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkins, pineapples, avocados, cacao (the source of chocolate), and chicle (for chewing gum). Europeans in turn introduced rice, wheat, barley, oats, grapevines, and sugarcane to the Amer- icas. The new crops changed diets and spurred a dramatic increase in the European population, which in turn helped provide the restless, adventurous young people who would colonize the New World.

an exchange of diseases The most significant aspect of the Columbian Exchange was, by far, the transmission of infectious diseases. During the three centuries after Columbus’s first voyage, Europeans and enslaved Africans brought deadly diseases that Native Americans had never encountered: smallpox, typhus, malaria, mumps, chickenpox, and measles. The results were catastrophic. By 1568, just seventy- five years after Colum- bus’s first voyage, infectious diseases had killed 80 to 90 percent of the Indian population—the greatest loss of human life in history.

Smallpox was an especially ghastly killer. In central Mexico alone, some 8  million people, perhaps a third of the entire Indian population, died of smallpox within a decade of the arrival of the Spanish. Unable to explain or cure the diseases, Native American chieftains and religious leaders often lost their stature—and their lives—as they were usually the first to meet the Span- ish and thus were the first infected. As a consequence of losing their leaders, the indigenous peoples were less capable of resisting the European invaders. Many Europeans, however, interpreted such epidemics as diseases sent by God to punish those who resisted conversion to Christianity.

The Spanish in North America Throughout the sixteenth century, no European power other than Spain held more than a brief foothold in the Americas. Spanish explorers had not only arrived first but had stumbled onto those regions that would produce the quickest profits. While France and England were preoccupied with political disputes and religious conflict at home, Catholic Spain had forged an author- itarian national and religious unity that enabled it to dominate Europe as well as the New World.

hispanic america For most of the colonial period, much of what is now the United States was governed by Spain. Spanish culture etched a lasting imprint upon America’s future ways of life. Hispanic place- names— San Francisco, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Fe, San Antonio,

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The Spanish in North America 33

Pensacola, St. Augustine—survive to this day, as do Hispanic influences in art, architecture, literature, music, law, and food.

St. Augustine In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, then governor of Puerto Rico, made the earliest known European exploration of Florida. Meanwhile, Spanish explorers sailed along the Gulf coast from Florida to Mexico, scouted the Atlantic coast all the way to Canada, and established a short- lived colony on the Carolina coast.

In 1539, Hernando de Soto and 600 conquistadores landed on the west- ern shore of La Florida (Land of Flowers) and soon set out on horseback to search for riches. Instead of gold, they found “great fields of corn, beans and squash . . . as far as the eye could see.” De Soto, who a companion said was “fond of the sport of killing Indians,” led the expedition north as far as western North Carolina, and then moved westward across Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama before happening upon the Mississippi River near what today is Memphis. After crossing the Mississippi, the conquistadores went up the Arkansas River, looting and destroying Indian villages along the way. In the spring of 1542, de Soto died near Natchez, Mississippi; the next year, the survivors among his party floated down the Mississippi River, and 311 of the original adventurers made their way to Spanish Mexico.

In 1565, in response to French efforts to colonize north Florida, the Span- ish king dispatched Pedro Menendez de Aviles with a ragtag group of 1,500 soldiers and colonists to found an outpost on the Florida coast. St. Augustine became the first permanent European settlement in the present- day United States. The Spanish settled St. Augustine in response to French efforts to col- onize north Florida. In the 1560s, French Protestant refugees (called Hugue- nots) established France’s first American colonies, one on the coast of what became South Carolina and the other in Florida. The settlements did not last long.

At dawn on September 20, 1565, some 500 Spanish soldiers from St. Augus- tine assaulted Fort Caroline, the French Huguenot colony in northeastern Florida, and hanged all the men over age fifteen. Only women, girls, and young boys were spared. The Spanish commander notified his Catholic king that he had killed all the French he “had found [in Fort Caroline] because . . .  they were scattering the odious Lutheran doctrine in these Provinces.” Later, when survivors from a shipwrecked French fleet washed ashore on Florida beaches after a hurricane, the Spanish commander told them they must abandon Prot- estantism and swear their allegiance to Catholicism. When they refused, his soldiers killed 245 of them.