Running head: Case Study in Early Childhood 1




Kenya Scott

PSY 203-83

July 29, 2019

A Case Study in Early Childhood Development

KS is a four-year-old African America female and lives with her mom in an apartment in a small city. Her mother is a Medical Assistant in a doctor’s office. KS is presently the only child. She loves dolls, animals, and dancing, and being inside and outside of her house. Her favorite movie is Frozen. While completing a case study you will come across weakness such as the observer can be bias, and you cannot generalize. (citation needed) But there are also strengths when conducting a case study, you get a lot in-depth and understanding, you also capture complexity. (citation needed) The purpose of this case study is to see where KS is excelling or lacking in her development within her early childhood years. Comment by Laurence Neely: No 1st or 2nd person reference Comment by Laurence Neely: No 1st or 2nd person reference Comment by Laurence Neely: No 1st or 2nd person reference Comment by Laurence Neely: No 1st or 2nd person reference

KS developed normally through the prenatal, infancy, and toddler stages. She was born a little premature on November 27, 2014. At birth, she weighed five pounds six ounces. As an infant KS’s mother chose to breast feed and instead giving her formula. As a toddler, KS hit all the important milestones, according to her mother, which included learning to walk which occurred around ten months. As KS continued to progress from a toddler to preschooler, at four years, she is forty-one inches tall and weighs around thirty-six pounds, most of this growth occurred, as it should, during the toddler years. Comment by Laurence Neely: Need to provide developmental milestones that she has accomplish. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar

Even though KS just turned four, she has hit many of the required gross and fine motor skills. She can run, hop, jump, walk up and down stairs alone, dress and undress, and build with blocks. Write letters along with a lot of other skills KS performs these tasks very well for her age. During this age children began in what Freud describes as the psychosexual theory children began to discover the differences between little boys and little girls. KS at age 4 has a great understanding. But in the beginning stage of potty training there was a bit of confusion KS is in the Phallic stage ages 3-6. (citation needed) Children in this stage are learning more about genital areas (citation needed) at age 3 she was highly confused why she did not have the same private parts as boys she also would become upset that she could not stand to use the restroom as boys. Once getting pass this it was a big accomplishment for her because it took her a little while longer to mastered it however she does have accidents due to the fact when she is playing she doesn’t want to stop to go to the bathroom but she has gotten a lot better overtime. Also, the children in this stage deal with Electra complex and Oedipus complex. (citation needed) With the Electra complex, KS does not compete with anyone for attention being that she is in a single parent household with just her mother. However, she still needs practice skipping and being comfortable using scissors. KS is right where she should be with her physical development. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar. Comment by Laurence Neely: Great understanding of what? Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar and no contractions Comment by Laurence Neely: This has nothing to do with psychosexual development. Why was this included here?

Theorist such as Vygotsky believe that society and culture play a major influence in cognitive development in children mostly in their preschool age. (citation needed) Observing KS, she is well advance in this area of development. KS is very independent and usually does not want any help doing anything once shown how to do it. Such as learning how to tie her shoe or put together a difficult puzzle Ks is very Observant of others and quickly learns this is great especially in a school setting. Comment by Laurence Neely: Grammar

Similarly to KS’s physical development, her cognitive develop is also maturing at what theorist would say is a normal rate. According to Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, KS is in the preoperational stage. At this age a child should be rapidly expanding his/her vocabulary, beginning to think intuitively but still thinking almost entirely on him/herself. While observing KS throughout her life but more intentionally over the past few months each of these characteristics has been seen in one way or another. She progressed through the building blocks of language beginning with babbling and moving through her first word around ten months and first sentence a little later. Currently, she is speaking in full complete sentences. KS is developing cognitively a little more every day and seems to be well on her way to accomplishing all the key milestones. Her language skills are amazing and advanced, at the age of four and she is continuously trying new things on her own with the idea that she can always ask for help. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: what are the key milestones and what has she learned. Language is not the only indicator of coginitive development. Should also talk about conservation etc. which are important parts of piaget’s theory/

As with physical and cognitive development, observers can see that KS is attaining the social developmental milestones as she progresses from the womb through the preschool age toddlerhood. Within the moral reasoning/development stages Kohlberg would say KS falls in conventional stage 3. Children such as KS began to look for approval or acknowledgement of others. (citation needed) KS loves the acknowledgement from adults especially when she does something, she is supposed to such as share or help others. Sometimes she gets sad if she is not acknowledged. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar

Through this case study, KS’s mother was also being observed. On her parenting styles as far as how, she disciplines and her interaction with KS. There are four different parenting styles. Authoritative, Neglectful, Permissive, and Authoritarian. (citation needed) KS and her mother have a wonderful loving bond that you would expect from a mother and child. While observing the parenting style KS mother would be listed between Authoritative and permissive. KS mother is Authoritative 1 because she has a great relationship with KS, but she does make it clear to KS why certain things should not be done. She does let her know the consequences for her actions. She makes sure she has a very clear understanding when being punish. But mom is also permissive. Even though she gives consequences and sets rules she sometimes does not follow through. Such as if KS breaks a rule she may say if you do it again these are the consequences KS know right from wrong and but like most kids KS may do it again to see if she can get away and sometime she does. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: no 1st/2nd person Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar. This should also be listed as she is mostly authorative but at times maybe permissive or etc. not between. Also need to state exactly why authoritative. Ie, she sets boundaries but allows for explanation from the child etc. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar

In regards to discipline, the mother uses several techniques. These techniques include punishment by addition and punishment by removal. Examples of punishment by addition include the use of spankings, and punishment by removal include time-out or removal of pleasurable stimulus. (citation needed) Punishment used by the mother includes sometimes spanking KS, taking away her tablet/laptop, having her sit in a corner, or sending her to her room. However, KS on the most part follows directions very well, very respectful and well mannered. She is very outgoing and lovable. Regarding learning KS would be in the Operant conditioning and Observational learning. Ks learns a lot by just observing what others do she picks up very easily and this is great especially in a school setting. But while at home and when it comes to chores and learning different responsibility, she learns by be rewarded for doing her chores such attempting to make her bed. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar

This experience has shown how preschoolers act and why they do the things they do. By observing KS for specific characteristics in the areas of physical, cognitive, and emotional growth. By completing this case study, a lot was accomplished. One can now have a much better idea of where this preschool-aged child is cognitively, emotionally, and physically developed. Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar Comment by Laurence Neely: grammar



References Freud’s Psychosexual Development in Psychology 101 at AllPsych Online. (n.d.). Retrieved 7 22, 2019, from Feldman, Robert (2104). Development Across the Life Span, pearson edcucation physical cognition development in preschool years WWW., 2011 children’s therapy and family resource center