Blog

Meditech Surgical Case Study

Meditech Surgical Case Study

Read the Meditech Surgical Case Study in the Simchi-Levi et al. text. Submit a t 500–700 words and respond to each of the 4 end-of-case discussion questions. Each question must be answered thoroughly and responses must be supported by the concepts introduced in the reading/study materials. Provide a brief description of the concepts and the significance of the concepts to practice in general, as well as what problems might be resolved through successful implementation of the concepts. Support your write-up by citing at least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles. Your write-up must be in current APA format and must include a reference list, and each question/answer must be delineated under an APA heading.

 

Sport Obermeyer Case Study

Sport Obermeyer Case Study

Read the Sport Obermeyer Case Study in the Simchi-Levi et al. text. Submit a 3-5 pages response to each of the end-of-case discussion questions. Each question must be answered thoroughly, and responses must be supported by the concepts introduced in the reading/study materials. Each question/answer must be delineated under a heading in current APA format. Include a title page and reference page also in current APA format. Incorporate a minimum of 5 peer-reviewed sources with at least 1 source per question.

KOL’s Current Situation Analysis And Future Marketing Trends And Development

KOL’s Current Situation Analysis And Future Marketing Trends And Development

Research

Name

Institutional affiliation

Date

 

 

 

Introduction

Social media networks are becoming increasingly important for marketers for spreading positive WOM among their online users (Fosdick 2012). The rise of social media connect by Fortune 500 companies (about 83% by 2011) were supported by the growing figures of online users going to social media as a way to seek views about non-reputed brands (Naylor, Lamberton, and West 2012). These social media conversations often helped in the consumer decision-making process (Powers et al. 2012). The importance of social media analytics data from social networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google + helped marketers identify influential customers (Hinz, Schulze, and Takac 2014) and their online purchase intention (Jin and Phua ) in a cost effective way. Instances of the introduction of shippable video advertising in 2010 by Google and its consequent improvement in the viewing experiences and better customer engagement of online users were studied to aid content generators (Pashkevich et al. 2012). So blog is an important marketing tool, online marketing, just like Baker said, “blog is a phenomenon, you cannot ignore”. The research shows that the content and frequency types of blog posts can enhance the research of Web site access, thus bringing positive comments and improved search engine rankings.

Over the past few years, brands and marketers have transformed how they manage their communications and marketing. The network is intended not only to be a form of entertainment, but also a platform for consumers to exchange experiences and preferences referring to consumer brands (Araujo & Neijens, 2012). Reviews by internet users are a type of electronic word-of-mouth, and are important sources of information in the decision-making process of other consumers (Wei & Lu, 2013). This occurs because the psychological processes of individuals are subject to social influences (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955). While it remains important to identify target channels through relevant media, publications and formats – brands and marketers have taken it up a notch, to direct their attention to a multitude of potential key opinion leaders (KOLs) and sources, seeking them out to leverage on their following of fans and readers. In marketing, the experts or authority advertised by the manufacturers are called “key opinion leaders”, which are usually defined as people with more and more accurate product information, accepted or trusted by the related groups, and have great influence on the purchase behaviour of the group. Consumers routinely adopt strategies to reduce their decision-making risks (Leal, Hor-Meyll, & Pessoa, 2014) and the opinion leaders act as agents for risk reduction, through experimentation and evaluation (Cho, Hwang, & Lee, 2012). For example, Scotland brewers HighlandPark, in order to promote new DarkOrigins whisky, has invited the authorities of creative and alcoholic industries to endorse the Instagram and other accounts, considering that the target market is young and interested in scientific and technological products. One of them is the Chris Messina, which invented the social network tag “#”.This is a typical marketing campaign using KOL.

The digital age has seen a shift in marketing with the emergence of KOL. Key Opinion Leaders work double-duty: they not only connect with their audience, but in most cases, they also have a specific target demographic. This allows brands to effectively allocate their marketing budget because of the targeted, niche audience the influencer has access to.

L’OREAL, Bondi, IKEA… Many big brands to KOL marketing emphasis on the performance, one is to continue to increase the budget in KOL marketing, two is to start a long-term KOL marketing strategy, have their own long-term cooperation of KOL. And this is just a start, a report released in February by the KOL marketing platform Gen.Video shows that in the KOL marketing brand, 51% indicates that 2017 will significantly increase the budget on KOL marketing, and 64% of the brands hope that KOL marketing can improve sales transformation, and 50% of brand names want to build brand assets through KOL marketing.

And some mature brands, in the KOL marketing has passed the early extensive cooperation, but the use of different levels of KOL in different circles of influence, the formulation of their own KOL marketing strategy, and different levels of KOL in different forms of cooperation.

In these brands, Paris L’OREAL in the UK launched “Beauty Squad”, through the small public KOL accurately touch the market segments of the audience, this fine operation of KOL, let us see the brand of KOL marketing more mature thinking and practice. Paris L’OREAL UK is a brand that has gone a long way in KOL marketing. In 2016, Paris L’OREAL UK signed five British beauty bloggers to form “Beauty Squad”. In 2017, this beautiful small team added three members to eight people, and the Paris L’OREAL UK will cooperate with them for a long time. Meanwhile, Paris L’OREAL UK announced increased budget in KOL marketing. Paris L’OREAL wants to touch the subdivision of the consumer groups behind them by choosing a number of KOL, and on the other hand, different styles of KOL can also show the diversity advocated by Paris L’OREAL. These eight KOL are very good at areas such as Crilly focused on skin care, Canham is a beauty expert, and Bright is an opinion leader in the field of skin care, beauty and hair and the effects of these KOL are also obvious. The first KOL marketing campaign in Paris L’OREAL is aimed at its base brand True Match, and True Match has become the best-selling foundation in Britain in a few short months through the recommendation of the beauty blogger.

On the ROI measurement of many brand headaches, Andrien Koskas also mentioned the practice of Paris L’OREAL: “the advantage of using KOL is that sometimes we do some product promotion on social media, and KOL will tell its fans.” Promote sales information and give them discount codes to encourage them to buy. By tracking these codes, we can clearly see that sales are growing. The effectiveness of these promotional activities is very direct. ”

In this context, the study is based on the relationship between online opinion leaders and their followers. The digital opinion leader attracts a lot of attention from Internet users and plays a key role in word-of-mouth advertising, producing information and using content to other people (Meng, Wei, Zhu, 2011), affecting people’s attitudes. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate how consumers are influenced in their intention to buy after having access – within social media – to persuasive messages sent out by key opinion leaders. In addition, Internet marketing is becoming more and more abundant. Many traditional and new marketing concepts are related to network marketing strategies and behaviours. Based on previous research work, we have learned the most popular themes, representing the most popular field of online marketing. In order to meet the research needs, this paper also tries to explore the future development trend of KOL.

Literature review

2.1 key opinion leadership, behavior and social media

In marketing, the experts or authority advertised by the manufacturers are called “key opinion leaders”, which are usually defined as people with more and more accurate product information, accepted or trusted by the related groups, and have great influence on the purchase behaviour of the group.

Unlike the “opinion leader”, the key opinion leader is usually an authority in a certain industry or field. In the communication of information, they are not dependent on their own activity, but they are easily recognized and recognized.

When potential consumers are not yet familiar with a product/service, they associate a high degree of uncertainty and risk to its purchase. Therefore, the adoption of this product/service depends on an individual’s predisposition to test new features and form his or her own perception on the product (Ortega, 2011). Compared with people who seek information, the key opinion leaders generally have more experience and more information on the product/service category, have greater involvement with it, and display a more exploratory and innovative behaviour (Lyons & Henderson, 2005). Thus, we can see the importance of opinion leaders, whose main features are that KOL has a longer and deeper involvement in a class of products than others in the group, so the product is more knowledge-based, more information sources, more knowledge and more experience. What’s more, another feature is the characteristics of interpersonal communication: KOL is more sociable and talkative than the ordinary people. They have strong social and interpersonal skills, and actively participate in various activities. They are good at making friends. They are the centre of public opinion and information publishing centre of the group. They have strong infection to others

In the digital era, in which one can use the internet as a source of consultation for both news and reviews, the discussion on the influence of certain groups in the dissemination of information should be expanded to the online environment (Merwe & Heerden, 2009). Digital opinion leaders are those who use online spaces, such as blogs, forums, social networks and other forms of online social media actively and in a collaborative manner (San Jose-Cabezudo, Camarero-Izquierdo & Rodriguez-Pinto, 2012). They can influence people in three main ways: serving as a model to be copied, through word-of-mouth advertising, or by giving advice on purchase and use (Merwe & Heerden, 2009). Digital opinion leaders attract a lot of attention from internet users and play a key role in word-of-mouth advertising, generating messages and content of use to other people (Meng, Wei & Zhu, 2011), influencing people’s attitudes.

The emergence of online social media encompasses texts, images, videos and social networks (Berthon, Pitt, Plangger, & Shapiro, 2012) and has amplified the ability to share and spread the content generated by users. By exchanging messages, digital social media users can interact and exchange information through various channels such as blogs, social networks, forums, virtual communities, sharing platforms and virtual worlds, among many others (Teng et al., 2014a).

Within this scenario, Weibo is one of the digital social media platforms in china that is being most used by key opinion leaders to express their opinions on products and services. Weibo was created so that users could share photos, and presently also allows for short videos. Users interact through comments on published photos or through “likes.”

2.2Acceptance of information theory

The theory of limited rationality indicates that when a person is making a choice, that person does not have access to all the information available on that subject and, even if they did, they would not have the ability to process and evaluate it all (Merwe & Heerden, 2009). A way to facilitate their decision-making is through recommendations from other users that give useful information on the products (Kumar & Benbasat, 2006).

Deutsch and Gerard (1955) proposed the Dual-Process theory (DPT) model to evaluate social influences on individuals? Judgments. According to this model, two types of influence can affect a person’s decisions: normative and informational influences. Normative influences are those that seek to make an individual act in accordance with the expectations of others. Informational influences, in their turn, are those referring to the acceptance of information passed on by others as evidence of reality. DPT suggests that the first motivator of attitudinal changes and, consequently, behavior, is external information (Bhattacherjee & Sanford, 2006). New information introduces other possibilities, causing one to think about different alternatives and possibly change the attitude towards a certain subject and people tend to believe messages transmitted by sources that are considered highly credible and to accept information transmitted through them more easily (Cheung et al., 2009).

2.3 Purchase intention

Purchase intention is understood as the desire to purchase a product in the future (Cheung & Thadani, 2012). The relationship between purchase intention and actual buying behavior is based on the fact that individuals make decisions based on the information available. Thus, a person’s intention to take action is the immediate determinant of their actual behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) The relationship between attitude and purchase intention is well established and validated in the literature of online consumer behavior. For example, Chang, Cheung, and Lai (2005) found that the attitude consistently has a significant impact on online purchase intention. This is also corroborated by Hsu et al. (2013), who revealed how a positive attitude can influence individuals’ purchase intention in online shopping environments.

Moreover, in studies on online word-of mouth communication, online recommendations are also a kind of social influence, especially when given by opinion leaders (Cheung & Thadani, 2012). Therefore, it is expected that the acceptance of information has a direct and positive effect on the intention to buy the evaluated products/services and the attitude of individuals regarding the purchase of the products/services recommended by online opinion leaders has a direct and positive effect on the purchase intention of the evaluated products/services.

Methodology

This section of the research study will describe the methodology applied for the study. The methodology section describes the research strategy applied, the research method, the approach, the methods in collection of data, selection of the samples, data analysis, ethical considerations during the research and the limitations of the study.

Research strategy

The study is based on the relationship between online opinion leaders and their followers. The digital opinion leader attracts a lot of attention from Internet users and plays a key role in word-of-mouth advertising, producing information and using content to other people (Meng, Wei, Zhu, 2011), affecting people’s attitudes. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate how consumers are influenced in their intention to buy after having access – within social media – to persuasive messages sent out by key opinion leaders. In addition, Internet marketing is becoming more and more abundant. Many traditional and new marketing concepts are related to network marketing strategies and behaviours. Based on previous research work, we have learned the most popular themes, representing the most popular field of online marketing. In order to meet the research needs, this paper also tries to explore the future development trend of KOL. Even the social media have been on the rise due to the advancements in technology, the proposed research will take the form of a new research but on a subject that already exists.

Research methods

In order to attain the goals of the research, a quantitative research method was applied. The major feature of a quantitative research method is that it is appropriate for larger samples and the outcomes are measureable. Quantitative research methods emphasize on mathematical analysis of data that has been collected. Since quantitative research methods work with data, it provides a clear picture of the variables under study. Quantitative research methods have also been described as effective and efficient and the results can be used in further research (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2015).

Even though quantitative research has been considered an effective research method, its major disadvantage is that it cannot cover some topics that do not involve numbers. In quantitative research, the variables must be measurable. In addition, the quantitative approach is vulnerable to errors, which might compromise the findings. When conducting a study that involves a quantitative research approach, it is therefore important to first understand the scope of the study and ensure that proper considerations have been made when conducting data analysis (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2015).

Research approach

A research approach is a description of the procedures and plans that will be undertaken in narrowing down to the detailed methods of analysis of data analysis and interpretation in order to attain the goals of the study. Based on the nature of the research, the research approach to be applied for the study is inductive. In an inductive research approach, there is usually a set of research questions that need to be answered at the end of the research process. In this study, we are aiming at studying how consumers can be influenced after accessing social media. After the research process, we will therefore be in a position to develop a theory on the impact of KOL on customer making decisions with the help of social media platforms (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2015).

Tools and methods for data collection

In data collection, there is a set of tools and methods that have to be used. The choice of the tools and methods is based on the nature of the study and the research objectives. It is also important to understand that the choice of the tools and methods is based on the availability of resources. For the purpose of this study, the survey method was used. A survey method is a data collection method that involves questioning individuals on a specific topic and describing the responses. There are two major purposes for survey method. One aim of the survey method is to describe the characteristics of the identified population. The second purpose of the survey method is to test hypotheses on the nature of relationships across the identified population.

For the purpose of this study, questionnaires were administered to the interviewees. The questionnaires were administered online where the respondents were expected to fill the questionnaire forms. The questionnaires contained a list of questions that the interviewees will answer based on their experience with key opinion leaders and on whether they have influenced their purchase decisions. The questions determined to what extent the potential customer was influenced to making a decision to making a purchase. The questions were structured in a way the customers would answer the questions and won’t feel that their private life is being investigated. All the questions in the questionnaire were semi structured, which provided a guideline to the interviewees when answering the questions. In addition, the questionnaire forms had a section where the respondents could write any additional information that they had on the influence of key opinion leaders on their purchasing decisions.

Some sample questions that were included in the online questionnaire include:

Question 1: What do you know about key opinion leaders?

Question 2: Are you on social media?

Question 3: which social media do you mostly use?

Question 4: what do you think about social media marketing?

Question 5: Have you ever been influenced by the social media in buying a product or a service?

Question 6: Do you think that you would not have made the purchase if the key opinion leader did not influence the product or service?

Question 7: Do you think that key opinion leaders influence consumer behaviour?

Question 8: Can every product or service be marketed on social media and still be a success?

Question 9: In your view, do you think that the key opinion leaders need to diversify their marketing channels? Why?

Sample selection

There are many people who are on social media and whose behaviour has been directly or indirectly influenced by key opinion leaders. Since it is not possible to interview all people on social media platforms, the study focused on a small sample that would represent the entire population. For this study, the sample population was a group of students who had bought new mobile phones or laptops for school use in the past three months. To get this population, the researcher posted on an online chat group and requested any willing individuals to contact him for a survey that he was conducting. Based on the many people that had recently bought mobile phones or laptops online, the researcher applied the simple random sampling. Since the determining factor was on whether they recently bought a product online, the sample selected would be effective in attaining the research objectives. Gender, age, or ethnic affiliations were not considered during the sample selection since they do not affect the purchasing decisions among students. Within the context, it was possible for the researcher to directly relate the impact of the key opinion leaders on the purchasing decisions of consumers (Orcher, 2016).

Ethical Considerations

The current study was subject to a number of ethical issues. Firstly, there was an issue with anonymity and some of the students felt that by engaging in the research, the information that they would present would be used maliciously. To deal with this issue, the researcher assured the students that the information was only for research purposes and that it would not fall into the wrong hands. In addition, the researcher ensured that each interviewee did not include any personal information, which would reduce the chances of their personal information being used maliciously. The second ethical issue encountered during the study was the use of incentives during the research. During the study, there were some subjects who wanted incentives tin order to fill the questionnaires. To ensure that the research study was objective, the researcher opted not to offer any incentives as they would alter the objectivity of the study. The third ethical issue was determining the validity of the information provided. It was difficult to ascertain on the validity of the information that was provided by the interviewees. However, the researcher ensured that he provided a positive environment for the interviewees, which would ensure that reliable information has been provided (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2015).

Research limitations

During the study, there were a number of limitations that were experienced. The first major limitation is the failure to cooperate among the respondents. Even though some of the respondents were willing to fill the questionnaire, some of them failed to fill in the forms thus making the sample population to be smaller. The other major challenge that was experienced during the study was the inability to capture some of the factors that the customers were looking at when buying the product after being influenced. Despite these limitations, the study has set precedence in understanding the role of key opinion leader in influencing consumer behaviour across social media.

Data Analysis

This section analyses the data that was collected through the survey questionnaires. The data collected was analysed through Microsoft excel. The data was used in making plausible conclusions based on the studies that were considered.

Social Media Use

According to the data that was collected, all of the participants in the study were in the social media platforms. According to the participants, everyone in the modern world is on social media, which they use for communication, having fun, and being updated on various emerging trends within the society. Some of the participants also noted that they use social media as one of the ways in which they are updated on the news from across the world. Majority of the participants stated that the social media has helped them in reducing the conveniences that were caused by other communication channels such as telephone or emails. Through the use of social media, majority of the participants stated that the social media has really helped them in different ways. When asked on the amount of time that they use in social media platforms, majority of them stated that they log in to their social media accounts for more than five hours a day. Others stated that they only log in to their social media accounts when they are out of class, while the minority stated that they only login into their accounts once they get home or in the evening after classes. When asked on the social media platform that they use most, majority of the participants stated that they mostly use Facebook, twitter, and instagram.

The observations made during the data collection on the use of social media reveals some of the trends that key opinion leaders need to consider when campaigning for their products or services. The data results show that the majority of consumers spend a considerable amount of their time on social media platforms than on their TV and radios. The study shows that due to technology advancements, more people are now on social media platforms, which is a more convenient way of reaching out to potential customers. The study has shown that by spending more time on the social media, key opinion leaders can use this as an avenue to inform the potential customers of their products and the advantages associated with reaching out to people in social media (McCann & Barlow, 2015).

Social media marketing

During the study, it was noted that a majority of the participants used social media as not only a media of communication but also as a source of information. Majority of the participants noted that they hardly sit to watch TV or listen to radio. This is mainly because, the social media makes it easier to share information by just posting it and everyone can see it regardless of their geographical location. The studies show that the majority of the participants prefer social media marketing as compared to the traditional methods of marketing. The participants also noted that the social media makes it possible for businesses to connect with their potential customers due to features such as instant messaging, which allow the potential customers to get information on the product that they are willing to buy instantly.

Technological advancements have changed the way people operate and especially businesses. Due to technology, business organizations have set up websites and social media sites, which have helped them connect with their clients and potential customers (Jones, Borgman, & Ulusoy, 2016). Most importantly, it is worth noting that majority of the businesses are using the social media s their new channel of marketing. According to the results exhibited during the study, any organization willing to become successful by increasing its customer base will need to venture in social media marketing. Social media marketing provides an opportunity for an organization to showcase its products and services to many potential customers, which improves the chances of being successful in the market. It is also worth noting that social media marketing has provided an affordable and convenient channel on which organizations can advertise and sell their products online. The social media sites have been created in a manner that users can communicate or share information as long as they are connected to the internet, which provides a platform for organizations to sell and advertise their products or services. Even though they may be required to pay a small fee for promotional purposes, the costs incurred in social media marketing are far way much less as compared to other strategies such as magazines, radio, and TV. The studies have therefore affirmed that the social media marketing is one of the most effective ways in marketing the products and services of an organization (Dijkmans, Kerkhof & Beukeboom, 2015).

Purchasing patterns

When asked on their online purchasing patterns, the participants provided insightful information on some of the factors that influence their online shopping. One of the factors that were noted among the participants during their online shopping is on the level of need for a particular product or service. When prioritizing on the product or service to buy, the participants noted that the level of need was the most important aspect that determined whether they actually wanted to buy a product or service. One of the participants offered an example of buying a laptop when theirs has been stolen or damaged. Since a laptop is a necessity to a student, then they will be prompted to buy regardless of the price. The second factor that influenced the decision to buy product online is its price. Majority of the participants stated that they will buy a second phone as long as the price that has been listed is attractive. The participants stated that low prices attracted their online shopping and highly influenced their decision to buy a product or a service even when the level of need is low. The third aspect that the participants considered to influence their online shopping pattern was promotion. Majority of the participants stated that given an option of choosing between buying a product that is being promoted online or a product that has been in the market and is not been promoted, most of them stated that they would buy the product that is being promoted (Schivinski & Dabrowski, 2016).

The observations made on the factors influencing online shopping among the participants reveals on some of the factors that influence the success of social media campaigns. It is fact that people do not log into their social media accounts to buy products or services. However, giving them ideas on these products builds interest and leads to sales. Social media marketing is similar to traditional marketing only that the platform is different. Based on the studies, key opinion leaders need to focus on creating the need for the particular product or service that they are advertising. Creating need requires the key opinion leader to provide the target audience with much information in regard to the product or service that they are willing to sell. Provision of information shows the target audience how much they might need the product or service and how it’s important to the potential customers. In addition to informing the target audience on the need for the product or service, the studies show that price is an important factor that key opinion leaders will need to consider. Potential customers are usually impressed by low prices, which show that key opinion leaders will need to provide proper pricing strategies when advertising their products. However, low prices do not always result to high sales, which mean that information remains a key factor for key opinion leaders during social media campaigns. The third aspect that has been noted to influence online shopping among the participants is promotion. In addition to providing information and offering impressive prices, a key opinion leader will need to evaluate on how to promote their products or services. Promotion of a product may take many forms and it is the role of the key opinion leader to evaluate their promotional strategies with the nature of the product, the market position of the organization that they represent, and their goals and objectives. These factors help in coming up with a coherent framework that key opinion leaders can apply in implementing their promotional strategies (Roth, Madden, & Hudson, 2015).

In evaluating the impact of KOL on purchasing decisions, majority of the participants stated that an ‘influencer’ in a social media campaign highly influenced their decision to buy a product or service. The participants stated that the presence of influencers helps in providing information on the particular product or service and engaged the potential customers, which highly influenced their decision to make the purchase. The studies therefore affirm that the KOL play an important role in influencing the potential customers in making purchasing decisions on social media platforms. The studies show that despite the fact that the key opinion leaders play an important role in influencing the potential customers, the strategies that they employ in the social media campaigns highly influence consumer behaviour (Hassan, Nadzim, & Shiratuddin, 2015).

Conclusion

This study was aimed at studying how consumers are influenced in their intention to buy after having an access with social media. The study would determine on the effectiveness of key opinion leaders in influencing the customers to buying the specific products that they are promoting. The results of the study will be effective in providing recommendations on the strategies that the key opinion leaders need to adopt in ensuring the success of their brands.

Over the past few years, brands and marketers have transformed how they manage their communications and marketing. The network is intended not only to be a form of entertainment, but also a platform for consumers to exchange experiences and preferences referring to consumer brands. Reviews by internet users are a type of electronic word-of-mouth, and are important sources of information in the decision-making process of other consumers. This occurs because the psychological processes of individuals are subject to social influences. While it remains important to identify target channels through relevant media, publications and formats – brands and marketers have taken it up a notch, to direct their attention to a multitude of potential key opinion leaders (KOLs) and sources, seeking them out to leverage on their following of fans and readers. In marketing, the experts or authority advertised by the manufacturers are called “key opinion leaders”, which are usually defined as people with more and more accurate product information, accepted or trusted by the related groups, and have great influence on the purchase behaviour of the group. Consumers routinely adopt strategies to reduce their decision-making risks and the opinion leaders act as agents for risk reduction, through experimentation and evaluation. For example, Scotland brewers HighlandPark, in order to promote new DarkOrigins whisky, has invited the authorities of creative and alcoholic industries to endorse the Instagram and other accounts, considering that the target market is young and interested in scientific and technological products. One of them is the Chris Messina, which invented the social network tag “#,” which is a typical marketing campaign using KOL.

The digital age has seen a shift in marketing with the emergence of KOL. Key Opinion Leaders work double-duty: they not only connect with their audience, but in most cases, they also have a specific target demographic. This allows brands to effectively allocate their marketing budget because of the targeted, niche audience the influencer has access to. Due to the increase in the use of social media among a considerable percentage of the population, key opinion leaders need to understand the need to apply effective strategies in the ensuring that they have attained their marketing goals and objectives (Parveen, Jaafar, & Ainin, 2015).

The studies have revealed that one of the most important factors that key opinion leaders will need to consider is the customer. In traditional marketing, the marketer usually understands the need of the customer and creates a specific strategy aimed at meeting the needs of the customer. However, with the advent of technology, the needs of the customers are becoming dynamic and it is important to understand all the factors influencing the needs of the customer. For a key opinion leader to be able to effectively influence the customer into buying their product, the leader will need to understand the customer. Understanding the customer means being in a position to understand the current trends in the market and the needs of the market. Understanding the customer places them in a position to tailor their strategies in order to meet the needs of the customers. In addition to meeting the needs of the customer, understanding the needs of the customer helps in being in a position to understand on the communication and promotion strategies to be applied. The social media is no longer meant for the millennial as the generation X, and generation Z are actively on social media. Therefore, the strategies that are employed by the key opinion leader in understanding the customers determine the intention of the customer to buy the product or service that they are promoting (Tiago & Veríssimo, 2014).

According to the findings of the study, there is a direct relationship between key opinion leaders and the intent by the customers to make a purchase. A key opinion leader has been considered as an individual whose major role is to influence potential customers into buying a specific product or service. The major difference between a key opinion leader and an opinion leader is that a key opinion leader is tasked with the authority of persuading customers over different social media platforms into buying their products and services. Key opinion leaders are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the information that they present to the potential customers is in line with the product or service that they are offering. One of the major aspects that have been noted to influence the strategies that are employed by the key opinion leaders is how information is presented. Given the rise of the social media, the key opinion leaders need to understand on how to present information the social media pages that they manage. The level of persuasiveness is determined by how much information they present to the potential customers, which influences their intention to buy the particular product or service (Valentini, 2015).

There are three major aspects that have been identified during the study that apply to key opinion leaders: customer, price, and promotion. A key opinion leader is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that they establish target customers and ensure that they create proper strategies that match with the needs of the customer. In addition, the aspect of customer also involves understanding the nature of the customer, which determines on how to communicate with them in persuading them to buy the particular product. On the aspect of price, the key opinion leader needs to ensure that they create an effective pricing strategy that ensures that the sales are made translate to profitability for their organization. Every organization is taking advantage of social media platforms, which means that the level of competition is high. Therefore, an effective pricing strategy will help the organization in ensuring that they maintain a competitive advantage in the market. The third aspect is on promotion. It is a fact that the role of a key opinion leader is to promote the products and services, but the manner in which they conduct the promotional campaigns determines the success. The choice of promotional strategy should be determined by the nature of the product, target audience, and the goals and objectives of the organization. It is important that key opinion holders understand the business environment on which they are operating on in ensuring that they implement promotional strategies that are effective for the business organizations that they represent (Tsimonis & Dimitriadis, 2014).

The choice of the key opinion leader has been described to have a direct influence on the intention by customers to buy a specific product or service. As mentioned, a key opinion leader is an individual charged with the responsibility of influencing the potential customer into buying their product or service. In order to attain this goal, the opinion key leader is expected to have a certain level of influence in the public domain. Key opinion leaders have been known to be widely known bloggers, celebrities, or other personalities that are known to create some level of influence to the potential customers. Therefore, the choice of a key opinion leader should be considered if any social media campaign is to be successful (Tuten & Solomon, 2017).

In conclusion, the current studies have affirmed the positive relationship between key opinion leaders and the intent by customers to buy products. The studies have revealed that key opinion leaders influence consumer behaviours and are effective in driving sales growth across organizations. With the increase in the use of social media across members of different age sets, the use of key opinion leaders is becoming more effective and efficient in promoting products and services. The studies also note that the choice of the key opinion leaders determines the level of influence to the potential customers.

Future Research and Development

The current research has provided insightful information on the impact of key opinion leaders on the intent by customers to buy products and services. It is notable that the key opinion leaders have become more common as a result of technological advancements and the increased use of social media platforms. In the future, the research will need to focus on the specifics on the key opinion holders and the specific impact of promotional campaigns. The research will need to establish on whether organizations can sustain the promotional strategies given that most companies only run promotional campaigns for a short period of time. Since promotions are costly, the research will need to recommend on strategies for sustained promotional campaigns. In addition, future research will need to consider other interplaying factors that affect the perceptions of the customers towards the key opinion leaders. By focusing on these areas, future research will have answered some of the questions that have not been answered in the current research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). A stage to engage: Social media use and corporate reputation. Tourism Management47, 58-67.

Hassan, S., Nadzim, S. Z. A., & Shiratuddin, N. (2015). Strategic use of social media for small business based on the AIDA model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences172, 262-269.

Jones, N., Borgman, R., & Ulusoy, E. (2015). Impact of social media on small businesses. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development22(4), 611-632.

McCann, M., & Barlow, A. (2015). Use and measurement of social media for SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development22(2), 273-287.

Ngai, E. W., Tao, S. S., & Moon, K. K. (2015). Social media research: Theories, constructs, and conceptual frameworks. International Journal of Information Management35(1), 33-44.

Orcher, L. T. (2016). Conducting research: Social and behavioral science methods. Routledge.

Parveen, F., Jaafar, N. I., & Ainin, S. (2015). Social media usage and organizational performance: Reflections of Malaysian social media managers. Telematics and Informatics32(1), 67-78.

Roth, M. S., Madden, T. J., & Hudson, R. (2015). The effects of social media on emotions, brand relationship quality, and word of mouth: An empirical study of music festival attendees. Tourism Management47, 68-76.

Schivinski, B., & Dabrowski, D. (2016). The effect of social media communication on consumer perceptions of brands. Journal of Marketing Communications22(2), 189-214.

Tiago, M. T. P. M. B., & Veríssimo, J. M. C. (2014). Digital marketing and social media: Why bother? Business Horizons57(6), 703-708.

Tsimonis, G., & Dimitriadis, S. (2014). Brand strategies in social media. Marketing Intelligence & Planning32(3), 328-344.

Tuten, T. L., & Solomon, M. R. (2017). Social media marketing. Sage.

Valentini, C. (2015). Is using social media “good” for the public relations profession? A critical reflection. Public Relations Review41(2), 170-177.

Fosdick, M. 2012. The globalization of social media: Consumer relationships with brands evolve in the digital space. Strategic Direction 28 (6):564–570. doi:10.1108/sd.2012.05628faa.006. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

 

Naylor, R. W., C. P. Lamberton, and P. M. West. 2012. Beyond the “like” button: The impact of mere virtual presence on brand evaluations and purchase intentions in social media settings. Journal of Marketing 76 (6):105–20. doi:10.1509/jm.11.0105.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Powers, T., D. Advincula, M. S. Austin, S. Graiko, and J. Snyder. 2012. Digital and social media in the purchase decision process a special report from the advertising research foundation. Journal of Advertising Research 52 (4):479–89.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Hinz, O., C. Schulze, and C. Takac. 2014. New product adoption in social networks: Why direction matters. Journal of Business Research 67 (1):2836–44. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.07.005.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

2014Jin, S. A., and J. Phua. 2014. Following celebrities’ tweets about brands: The impact of twitter-based electronic word-of-mouth on consumers’ source credibility perception, buying intention, and social identification with celebrities. Journal of Advertising 43 (2):181–95. doi:10.1080/00913367.2013.827606.[Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Pashkevich, M., S. Dorai-Raj, M.Kellar, and D. Zigmond. 2012. Empowering online advertisements by empowering viewers with the right to choose. Journal of Advertising Research 52:65–71.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Baker, S., and H. Green. 2008. Social media will change your business. http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/stories/2008-02-20/social-media-will-change-your-businessbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice(accessed July 21, 2015).  [Google Scholar]

 

Lin, Y.-S., and J.-Y. Huang. 2006. Internet blogs as a tourism marketing medium: A case study. Journal of Business Research 59 (10):1201–05. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.11.005.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Balagué, C., and K. De Valck. 2013. Using blogs to solicit consumer feedback: The role of directive questioning versus no questioning. Journal of Interactive Marketing 27 (1):62–73. doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2012.06.002.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

In, S. A., and J. Phua. 2014. Following celebrities’ tweets about brands: The impact of twitter-based electronic word-of-mouth on consumers’ source credibility perception, buying intention, and social identification with celebrities. Journal of Advertising 43 (2):181–95. doi:10.1080/00913367.2013.827606.[Taylor & Francis Online][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Jeong, H. J., H.-J. Paek, and M. Lee. 2013. Corporate social responsibility effects on social network sites. Journal of Business Research 66 (10):1889–95.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

 

Shi, M., and A. C. Wojnicki. 2014. Money talks to online opinion leaders: What motivates opinion leaders to make social-network referrals? Journal of Advertising Research 54 (1):81–91.[Crossref][Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]

Assignment: Promotion and Pricing Strategies

I NEED A+ GRADE

ESSAY

Assignment: Promotion and Pricing Strategies

“Entrepreneurs must determine what to sell, to whom and how often, on what terms and at what price, and how to get the product or service to the customer. In short, a marketing plan identifies a company’s target customers and describes how it will attract and keep them. The process does not have to be complex” (Scarborough & Cornwall, 2015, p. 274).

With this assignment, you will address some of the basic areas within a marketing plan and help to refine your strategies for creating a successful business.

Using the business from the previous assignment, write a three to four (3–4) page paper in which you:

  1. Identify its primary target market.
  2. Specify three (3) methods you will use to research customer needs and wants.
  3. Describe the marketing mix: a) product, b) pricing strategy, c) promotion, and d) placement/distribution.
  4. Create a one-year advertising budget and plan that incorporates the use of various advertising media and publicity.
  5. Include at least two (2) references outside the textbook.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Describe and analyze the necessary activities and key decisions to start a small business.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in small business management.
  • Write clearly and concisely about small business management using proper writing mechanics.

Technology Supporting Business Processes

Technology Supporting Business Processes

Assignment 2: Discussion—Technology Supporting Business Processes

Over the twentieth century, the ability to process information in terms of labor units has improved by a factor in the order of 1 to 5 trillion. This improvement represents a compounded growth rate of between 30 to 35 percent per year for a century. At the turn of the twentieth century, the mechanical calculator offered a modest productivity increase but the number of workers required to maintain the accounts of a medium-sized business still remained very high. Many tasks would take a large investment in equipment and a significant number of accountants’ weeks to process. A hundred years later, the same tasks can be completed by a standard desktop computer in minutes. The challenge for management has transitioned from a simple reduction in labor requirements to leveraging the increased processing power to develop competitive, efficient, and profitable organizations.

With this example in mind, use the assigned readings for this module and respond to the following:

  • Explain how information systems influence businesses to be more competitive, efficient, and profitable.
  • Provide at least one example for each factor.

By the due date assigned, post your response to the Discussion AreaThrough the end of module, review and comment on at least two peers’ responses.Explain and justify your position.

Write your initial response in 300–500 words. Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion question in detail, include citations of all sources, where needed, according to the APA Style, and demonstrate accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation

Do the following when responding to your peers:

  • Read your peers’ answers.
  • Provide substantive comments by
    • contributing new, relevant information from course readings, Web sites, or other sources;
    • building on the remarks or questions of others; or
    • sharing practical examples of key concepts from your professional or personal experiences
  • Respond to feedback on your posting and provide feedback to other students on their ideas.
  • Make sure your writing
    • is clear, concise, and organized;
    • demonstrates ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and
    • displays accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Grading Criteria

Grading CriteriaMaximum PointsQuality of initial posting, including fulfillment of assignment instructions16Quality of responses to classmates12Frequency of responses to classmates4Reference to supporting readings and other materials4Language and grammar4Total:40

How Is Technology Changing The Face Of Business Today?

How Is Technology Changing The Face Of Business Today?

Assignment 3: How is Technology Changing the Face of Business Today?

The traditional retail model has focused on finding high-margin, high-volume products or services because limited space means reduced space inventory. For example, organizations such as Walmart select the biggest hits from the broadest genres, called the “short head.” The short head means Walmart will only carry a select mix of country, pop, and rock that is calculated to provide the greatest cost/benefit. The business model of Amazon is different. Amazon provides the short head but also provides the “long tail” of more than 100,000 different audio selections. The competition for customers between the Walmart and Amazon marketplace is profoundly changing the face of retail business today.

Using the assigned reading and the Argosy University online library resources, find at least three scholarly articles that address similar current trends related to e-business and how e-business is changing the face of businesses today.

Using your company or a real-world example from your research, respond to the following:

  • Describe how technology is changing the face of businesses today.
  • Describe the most critical business processes that utilize information systems in your selected company.
  • Explain how IT makes the company’s business processes faster, cheaper, more accurate, and customer-savvy than that of competitors.
  • Cite at least three sources found in your online library research.

Give reasons and examples from your research to support your responses.

Write 3–5-page paper in Word format. Be sure to use and cite the module readings. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M1_A3.doc. For example, if your name is John Smith, your document will be named SmithJ_M1_A3.doc.

By the due date assigned, deliver your assignment to the Submissions Area.

Assignment 3 Grading CriteriaMaximum PointsExplained how IT makes the selected company’s business processes faster, cheaper, more accurate, and customer savvy than that of competitors.40Describe how technology is changing the face of businesses today.20Describe the most critical business processes that utilize information systems in your selected company.20Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.20Total:100

Introduction To Management Information Systems

Introduction To Management Information Systems

Read at least three (3) academically reviewed articles on Management Information Systems and complete the following activities:

(Wikipedia articles will not be accepted.

1.     Summarize all three (3) articles in 300 words or more. Please use your own words. No copy-and-paste

2.     Discuss at least 3 different concepts presented in the articles. As an IT professional, how would you apply the three (3) concepts you identified.

Please use APA throughout.

HEALTHCARE

HEALTHCARE

diiscussion board due thursday 250-350 words name of the textbook is (research techniques for health sciences by  james j. neutens 5th ed

 

Throughout this course, you will identify the steps in developing a research proposal. You will not be conducting the research or writing a full proposal; however, you will become familiar with the research process itself.

Many steps comprise the research process, but the first step is to determine a topic. You can find a topic through personal or professional interest and that is directed toward solving a problem. For the purpose of this course, you will select one of the eight topics presented below.

  • Childhood diabetes
  • Alcohol use in adolescents
  • Skin cancer in young women
  • Cardiovascular disease in the minority population
  • Childhood immunizations
  • Long-term care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cultural impact of posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Privacy with electronic health records

Post a comprehensive response including the following:

  • A research topic written as a problem statement (See page 16 in your textbook)
  • The purpose of the research, including how the project will further knowledge and extend theory (See pages 3-5 in your textbook.)
  • Reason for selecting the topic (See pages 13–14 in your textbook.)
  • Define any terms that may have special meaning to the study itself (See pages 17-18 in your textbook.)
  • ______________________________________________

resources

 

Neutens, J. J., & Rubinson, L. (2014). Research techniques for the health sciences (5th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.

Chapter 1, “What Is Research?”
This chapter introduces the scientific approach to research with a focus on discovering cause-and-effect relationships between variables. You should pay special attention to the section on science and theory, as one goal of scientific inquiry is to formulate theory.
Chapter 2, “Developing the Research Proposal”
The foundation of a research study is the research proposal. The proposal allows the researcher to specify the problem and formulate a study in terms of the appropriate study design and methodology. This chapter will assist you in selecting a research problem and writing a statement of the problem.

Chalkidou, K., Tunis, S., Lopert, R, Rochaix, L., Sawicki, P., Nasser, M., et al. (2009). Comparative effectiveness research and evidence-based health policy: Experience from four countries. Milbank Quarterly, 87(2), 339-367.
Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Comparative effectiveness research is the comparison of one diagnostic or treatment option to one or more other methods. This article emphasizes the importance of including costs in the comparison of diagnostic and treatment options.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality provides clinical information for both providers and practitioners. This is also a great resource for data and funding sources. Skim the Web site and refer back to it often during this course.

RAND Health. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/health.html

The Rand Corporation has been conducting health-related research for 60 years. The Rand Health Web site provides research ideas and examples of current research areas. Peruse the site for ideas for your own research proposal.

University of Washington: Community-Campus Partnerships for Health. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/commbas.html

Community-based participatory research begins with a research topic of importance to the community. This Web site provides research ideas and links to peer-reviewed journal articles of past research projects.

Required Media

The Scientific Method

This presentation provides an overview of the scientific method, scientific theory, and the research process. The scientific method distinguishes between basic and applied science and will step you through the cyclical stages of the research project.

Optional Resources

National Guideline Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://www.guideline.gov/

NGC Guidelines Syntheses. Retrieved from https://www.guideline.gov/syntheses/index

NIH Research Matter. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters

Blueprint Project

Blueprint Project

The Assignment

All components of the assignment must be turned in as one document:

  1. The executive summary: Write an Executive Summary of the course (2–3 paragraphs) that addresses the following questions:
    • Which content and assignments in this course improved your understanding of managing people and fostering collaboration within your organization (or one with which you are familiar)?
    • What impact has your improved understanding had or (what do you anticipate it will have) on the value you will bring to your role within an organization?
    • How have the content and assignments changed the way you think of the manager’s role within the organization and the way you will practice management and collaboration?
    • How have the content and assignments shaped your goals now and how do you anticipate they will shape your goals in the future?
    • How has the content in this course helped you appreciate the role that managers have in facilitating positive social change within an organization or more broadly?
  2. After considering what you have learned in the course, review the article by Christensen (2010). Then create a strategy for your professional and personal life that will enable you to be the person you described in “Your Sentence” in Week 3. As part of your strategy, be sure to include responses to the following questions:
    • How can I be sure that I will be happy in my career and be the manager I aspire to be?
    • How can I be sure that my relationships with my spouse/partner and my family become an enduring source of happiness?
    • How can I be sure I will maintain my personal integrity, regardless of ethically challenging situations, or morally ambiguous situations? (Hint: Most people consider themselves to be ethical and would not think they could violate their personal integrity. But what would you do if your employer asked you to perform a task or make a decision you are ethically uncomfortable with (but is not illegal), when failure to carry out such a task would risk your termination, your next promotion, or upcoming pay increase? What might you do if you discovered that a task or policy you carried out in good faith had unforeseen consequences you would feel the need to correct? Seriously reflect on how you will safeguard your own integrity, even when faced with an ethically ambiguous situation, potentially harsh personal consequences, or attempting to right a wrong you may have committed.)
  3. Your action plan: Write a detailed action plan for one new goal for professional and personal development (you will continue to build on the list of goals you started in your previous course). Include the following in your action plan:
    • Your specific goal for professional and personal development with an explanation as to why you selected the goal. Be sure to provide concrete and specific examples of why the goal is important, the extent to which this goal enables you to be an agent for positive social change, the personal or professional value you expect from achieving each goal, and how the goal relates to the resources you reviewed in the course.
    • At least two objectives for the goal you have identified. Provide a rationale that explains how your objectives support the goal.

Guidance on Assignment Length: Your BPPG, including the Executive Summary (which should be 2–3 paragraphs in length and no more than one page single spaced), your strategy and action plan should be 3–6 pages total (1.5–3 pages total if single spaced). Refer to the Week 8 Individual Reflection Rubric for grading elements and criteria. Your instructor will use the rubric to assess your work.. References and info will be provided.

HEALTHCARE

HEALTHCARE

DISCUSSION BOARD DUE THURSDAY 250-350 WORDS. THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC EXAMPLE IS IN THE ATTACHMENT. THE NAME IF THE BOOK IS (EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH – PRACTICE 5TH 14 BY ROBERT H FRIIS.

 

The following is an example of an epidemiologic triad.

  • Agent: the salmonella organism
  • Keep in mind that agents can be biologic (e.g., bacteria or viruses), chemical (e.g., poisons or alcohol), physical (e.g., trauma or radiation), or nutritional (e.g., a lack or excess of essential nutrients).
  • Host factors: individuals who are particularly vulnerable (e.g., the very young or very old and immunocompromised individuals)
  • Note that, in general, host characteristics can include age, sex, race, religion, customs, occupation, genetic factors, other health factors, and immunologic status.
  • Environmental factors: contaminated kitchen surfaces or utensils, undercooking of contaminated food items, or contaminated chicken
  • Environmental factors can include temperature, crowding, noise, pollution, food, and radiation.

Changes in one factor in the epidemiological triad can influence the occurrence of disease by increasing or decreasing a person’s risk for disease. Consider how variations in each factor shown in the example can influence the manifestation of disease. Refer to pages 438–445 in your textbook for further explanation.

In this Discussion, you will provide other examples of the epidemiological triad and discuss them with your colleagues.

To prepare for this Discussion:

To complete the Discussion, post the name of the disease you selected. Next, apply the disease to the epidemiologic triad. Provide an example of an agent that is associated with the disease you selected. Provide at least three examples of environmental factors and three examples of host factors that contribute to the likelihood of transmission of that agent to an individual.

________________________

RESOURCES

 

Friis, R., & Sellers, T. (2014). Epidemiology for public health practice (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Chapter 1, “History and Scope of Epidemiology”This chapter provides definitions of epidemiological concepts. In addition, it gives a brief introduction to the interdisciplinary approach of epidemiology, including an overview of the history of the field. It includes a number of case studies that illustrate the key points of the chapter.
Chapter 2, “Practical Applications of Epidemiology” (pp. 55–83; 98–101)Building upon the historical events that characterize the study of epidemiology, this chapter discusses the major applications of epidemiology in public health, clinical, and operational settings. The different types of prevention are also discussed.
Chapter 12, “Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases”This chapter explores the modes of transmission of infectious agents. In addition, the categories of infectious disease agents and their characteristics are presented. Aspects of investigating disease outbreaks are also explained.

What is Epidemiology?
This presentation provides a general overview of the field of epidemiology. It also serves as a summary of the topics that will be presented in this course. 

Required Media

Is Epidemiology in Your Future?
http://www.rwjf.org/en/about-rwjf/newsroom/newsroom-content/2008/03/is-epidemiology-in-your-future.html

This video webcast, developed by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, explores the various career opportunities available in the field of Epidemiology. The video also offers insights into the Young Epidemiology Scholars (YES) program.

The Age of AIDS, Part I
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/aids/view/

View at least one of the following Public Broadcasting System (PBS) video segments at some time during the course. This series of videos explores various aspects of the AIDs epidemic, including how epidemiological associations about AIDs were determined.
Part One, Episode One: A Deadly New Disease
Part One, Episode Two: The Spread Escalates
Part One, Episode Four: Scientific Breakthroughs

Optional Resources

Epidemiology for Public Health Practice
“Glossary” (pp. 737–757)It is strongly recommended that you review the Glossary and refer to it throughout the course as needed.

BBC Historic Figures, John Snow (1813–1858)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/snow_john.shtml

BBC Historic Figures, James Lind (1716–1794)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/lind_james.shtml

Interactive Map: AIDS in the U.S.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/aids/atlas/us.html

This interactive map identifies the HIV statistics for each state in the United States. It provides an example of the type of statistics compiled by epidemiologists. Roll over a state for more details and click on a tab to learn more.