Instructions For the last several weeks, you have been locating and interpreting research on the dimensions of behaviorism. For this assignment, analyze and synthesize 3 current journal articles related to each of the following types of behaviorism (at least 9 sources total):

Instructions

For the last several weeks, you have been locating and interpreting research on the dimensions of behaviorism. For this assignment, analyze and synthesize 3 current journal articles related to each of the following types of behaviorism (at least 9 sources total):

· Methodological behaviorism.

· Radical behaviorism.

· Post-Skinner behaviorism. Choose one of the following:

· Psychological.

· Biological.

· Theoretical.

· Teleological.

Your assignment should include the following:

· A brief summary of the main points related to the area of behaviorism presented in each of the articles.

· Evaluation of the authors’ presentation of the specific behaviorism theory in each article.

· Evaluation of how the authors’ perspectives on behaviorism are related to applied behavior analysis in each article.

· Comparison and contrast of the three articles within each dimension of behaviorism.

· Synthesis of the three articles within each dimension of behaviorism to present a comprehensive perspective.

· Complete, accurately-formatted APA citation in the reference list.

Assignment Requirements

· Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.

· APA format: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines.

· References: At least 9 scholarly sources, which should be peer-reviewed journal articles or other scholarly articles written within the past 5 years.

· Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

The Store Shopper

The Store Shopper

 

Mary likes to shop at Safeway because she likes their wide variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Periodically Mary is seen sampling the grapes and strawberries to determine their freshness and flavor. The store has no posted signs inviting shoppers to sample the fresh produce, yet Mary, like many others, is oblivious to the fact that someone must pay for the sampled fruit. Mary rationalizes her behavior by thinking that she is only sampling a couple of grapes and strawberries. No one cares; everybody else does it too; and certainly a few grapes will never be missed. She eats the fruit in open view, suggesting to others that such behavior is common and quite acceptable. No harm done. Have you ever sampled the fruit? Is this behavior stealing? Why, or why not? A man was once arrested in a store because he sampled too many grapes. Is it socially acceptable to steal within certain limits?

 

Scenario 2 Highway Cash

 

It seems like once every year or two in the United States a guard forgets to properly close the back door to an armored truck and bags of cash fall out onto the highway. Finders keepers? If you came upon a couple of bags of money containing $100,000 dropped along a highway, would you keep the money? You are not responsible for the money being dropped there; and after all, someone needs to pick it up, right? Is it a crime if you choose to keep it? Are you morally and/or legally obligated to return the money? Under what circumstances do you feel it’s OK to keep the cash? Does the amount of cash matter in your decision-making process? Does whether the bags have identification affect your decision to keep or turn in the money?

 

Scenario 3 Every Step You Take, I’ll Be Watching You

 

Everyone has their own way of meeting people and developing relationships. Some are just better at it than others. Take Joe for example. There is a new coworker who has a cubicle not far from his. He is a bit socially awkward but cannot pass up an opportunity to make contact with this lovely person with the beautiful smile. Joe decides to leave her unsigned notes on her desk telling her how happy he is that she is working for the company. He has left a few gifts on her desk as well: a flower, some chocolates, and some fruit. Sometimes he has followed her home just because he is curious where she lives. A few times he has deliberately shopped at the same grocery store as his coworker but made sure she did not see him there. He doubts that he could ever date her because Joe suspects she might be married or at least have a boyfriend. Is this stalking? He has no intent to do harm, and he has given her gifts and does not hit on her like some of his coworkers. Joe is one of the good guys, right? After all, he understands boundaries.

 

Scenario 4 Desperate Times Require Desperate Measures, Right?

 

Are there conditions under which you would consider it justifiable to commit a crime? How about theft? For example, you find yourself out of money and in need of food for yourself and three young children. You just moved into town and don’t have any friends yet and no family. Your last paycheck was used for rent and moving expenses. Now you have no money left for food and the kids are hungry and one is crying. All you need is a few staples like bread, milk, and eggs. You know you will pay the store back later. So, you simply place the few food items in your tote bag and walk out of the store. In this case, does the end justify the means?

© 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2

On May 18, 1927, a farmer angered by property taxes that helped build a local school building in Bath, Michigan, murdered his wife, burned down his house, detonated over 1,000 pounds of dynamite he had placed within the school, then drove his truck up to the school and discharged another explosive killing 45 people, most of whom were children, and injuring another 58.

On May 18, 1927, a farmer angered by property taxes that helped build a local school building in Bath, Michigan, murdered his wife, burned down his house, detonated over 1,000 pounds of dynamite he had placed within the school, then drove his truck up to the school and discharged another explosive killing 45 people, most of whom were children, and injuring another 58. On April 20, 1999 (72 years later), two students at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, carried out a highly planned massacre involving multiple explosives and a shooting spree ending in the deaths of 14 people (including the perpetrators) and the injury of 21 more.

The Bath, Michigan, disaster drew limited media coverage lasting roughly a week and the story all but vanished from headlines. The Columbine shooting, however, remains a turning point in the perception of safety in schools. One major reason for this is the explosion of news coverage and the intense, long-lasting analyses of this and other acts of mass school violence.

Post by Day 3 a response to the following:

·  How does the media shape society’s viewpoint of mass violence?

o  What are the similarities and differences between the two school disasters with regard to the mindset of the attackers?

o  Are school children safer now than they were then? Explain your answer.

o  Is media overstating school violence or creating copycat events? Why, or why not?

·  Does media contribute to stereotypes of crime? Explain your rationale.

·  How has the explosion of social media and 24-hour news coverage impacted our perceptions of violence vs. the impact of more traditional radio and television news coverage? Provide an example.

Richard was just 11 years of age when he set his first fire. He claimed it was accidental and remembers finding the experience scary but also fascinating. Richard went on to become a prolific serial arsonist that he would later admit provided him a sense of power and sexual gratification.

Richard was just 11 years of age when he set his first fire. He claimed it was accidental and remembers finding the experience scary but also fascinating. Richard went on to become a prolific serial arsonist that he would later admit provided him a sense of power and sexual gratification. He also committed a wide range of other crimes including sexual assault, auto theft, impersonating a police officer, burglary, theft, and prostitution. His preference, however, was setting fires. He could not resist the temptation to burn down larger and larger structures. What motivated Richard to commit such dangerous crimes? What risk factors may have influenced his desire to start fires?

Indeed, what makes someone like Richard more likely to become a criminal?
Researchers have studied these questions for decades and still do not have definitive answers. There are biological, behavioral, developmental, and situational factors, however, that establish correlations with criminal proclivity. Biologically, factors like overall temperament, brain chemistry problems, and hormone imbalances could be indicative of a tendency toward criminality. Certain developmental issues like cognitive ability, intelligence, language development, and self-regulation skills have also been studies for correlation. In addition, displaying such behaviors like deceit, impulsiveness, and manipulation may hold a connection to criminal activity.

Other compelling factors may germinate in social learning environments. Some offenders may believe that by committing crimes there are specific outcomes and/or rewards for doing so. Some commit crimes because they are frustrated in their efforts to achieve and succeed in life. Others may commit crimes simply because of the specific difficult situation in which they find themselves. For psychologists, understanding the permutations of criminality is important, but even more so is making determinations for treatment and predictions for future criminal behavior.

Post by Day 3 a response to the following:
Analyze your selected case study:

·  What demographics or risk factors (e.g., acute, direct, proxy, short and long-term) are involved that may have contributed to the person becoming a victim or offender?

·  How are the demographics or risk factors for becoming a criminal and victim related? How are they different? How would the demographics or risk factors vary in another country?

·  If an individual reflects the data supporting the likelihood of becoming a criminal or victim, does that guarantee the outcome?

·  Support your responses with evidence from the Learning Resources or other academic material.

Prompt: Choose any one (1) of the below 3 options for your post; it’s your choice. Please start your post with the Option number so we can easily know which option you chose. Your posts are critical thinking on your part. 

Prompt: Choose any one (1) of the below 3 options for your post; it’s your choice. Please start your post with the Option number so we can easily know which option you chose. Your posts are critical thinking on your part. 

Option 1: In today’s media world, negative body images are directed towards adolescent females and males. Do you think the media affects how adolescents feel about their body image? Why or Why not? Discuss for both teen females and teen males and support your opinion with at least 1 example each. Your example(s) should be from your own experience;

Option 2: If you could change ONE (1) thing in media to give a more positive message to all adolescent body images/shapes, what would it be? And how would you share it with adolescents? Discuss and support your opinion with at least 1 example/reason for each part. Your example(s) should be from your own experience; it’s critical thinking on your part.

Option 3: Imagine that you are a parent and you are departing on a 10-year voyage, leaving behind your pre-adolescent child. Compose a letter to help your child cope with the changes that will soon occur as they become an adolescent. Discuss and support your opinion with at least 1 example/reason. Your example(s) should be from your own experience; it’s critical thinking on your part.

 Risk of Crime

Risk of Crime

A woman who is engaged in prostitution is more likely to find herself vulnerable to theft, assault, and other types of violent crimes. High-risk behaviors such as this create an increased likelihood of more violent crimes. Another woman works in a white-collar job and lives in the suburbs. Does that mean that she does not have to be concerned about crime? She is still at risk, but perhaps it is of a different form.

What are the correlations between demographics and the types of crimes people commit? Do certain types of people have a higher risk of committing particular crimes or becoming a victim of those crimes? In your Learning Resources this week, you examined what risk factors tend to lead to becoming an offender or a victim, but in this Assignment you will take it one step further.

In this Assignment, you will select a case study where risk factors are present. You will examine the correlation that exists between risk factors and the types of crimes  that are likely to occur. You will then make a determination of the relative likelihood that a person will become an offender or a victim.

In a 3- to 5-page paper:

·  Summarize the case.

·  Identify demographics and risk factors (e.g., acute, direct, proxy, short and long-term) that are present in the case that contribute to the subject becoming a victim or offender.

·  Identify and evaluate the risk factors that are prone to influence a person, once they have committed their first crime, to continue engaging in criminal behavior. For victims of crime, identify and evaluate factors that would facilitate continued victimization.

·  Explain if there is a correlation between risk factors and the types of crimes that are likely to occur.

·  Rate the subject (Scale of 1–10) as to how likely is it that he/she will commit a crime or become a victim.

·  Include supporting evidence of your conclusions.

Ethical dilemmas are those situations in which most, if not all, proposed actions appear to violate one or more ethical guidelines. For example, a forensic psychology researcher proposes some degree of participant deception about the objectives of a study in order to decrease the likelihood that knowing the exact objective of the study will affect the participants’ behavior during the study.

Ethical dilemmas are those situations in which most, if not all, proposed actions appear to violate one or more ethical guidelines. For example, a forensic psychology researcher proposes some degree of participant deception about the objectives of a study in order to decrease the likelihood that knowing the exact objective of the study will affect the participants’ behavior during the study. This is a dilemma because use of deception during research is not allowed by the code of ethics, but if some amount of deception is not used, the results of the study will have questionable value.

In another example, a forensic psychology clinical professional who is hired by a defense attorney to evaluate the defendant discovers information about the defendant that will facilitate the prosecutor’s case. This is a dilemma because the code of ethics requires forensic psychology professionals to be truthful and act with integrity, but doing so may actually hamper the defense attorney’s case.

Forensic psychology is often focused on challenging issues and tasks, and encountering an ethical dilemma can more typically be the rule rather than the exception. Forensic psychology professionals need to have an acceptable way of resolving ethical dilemmas. An ethical decision-making model offers a way to better articulate the critical issues during an ethical dilemma, identify different courses of action to resolve the dilemma, and weigh the benefits and risks of these actions in order to arrive at a possible solution. Although application of an ethical decision-making model does not guarantee immunity against being disciplined for an ethical violation, its use can help mitigate negative consequences when potential ethical violations are being investigated.

Post by Day 3 a response to the following:

·  Identify the boundary violation you have chosen from the list on page 364 in the article “When Boundaries Are Broken: Inmate Perceptions of Correctional Staff Boundary Violations.”

·  Describe the relevant ethical guideline(s) that pertain to the boundary violation.

·  Explain how you would apply each of the following eight steps of the ethical decision-making model from Chapter 1 in Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology: A Systematic Model for Decision Making to your selected boundary violation:

1.  Identify the Problem

2.  Consider the Significance of the Context and Setting

3.  Identify and Use Ethical and Legal Resources

4.  Consider Personal Beliefs and Values

5.  Develop Possible Solutions to the Problem

6.  Consider the Potential Consequences of Various Solutions

7.  Choose and Implement a Course of Action

8.  Assess the Outcome and Implement Changes as Needed

This week, you will begin by choosing a psychological characteristic on which people differ. A simple, narrow characteristic works best for this assignment. You may want to look ahead to the next two weeks as you will be continuing the project based on your work this week.

This week, you will begin by choosing a psychological characteristic on which people differ. A simple, narrow characteristic works best for this assignment. You may want to look ahead to the next two weeks as you will be continuing the project based on your work this week.

Conduct a brief literature review of the psychological characteristic you chose, learning more about it and how it has been defined and measured in the past. Then, answer the following questions about your test. You may use this template to help organize your paper:   Test proposal template 1.docx

Test Topic:

  • What is the name of your test?
  • What is your test designed to measure? Be specific.
  • How do you define the construct being measured? Remember, that to create a test the construct should be defined in ways that can be quantified and measured.
  • What is the purpose of your test? What real-world behavior will it predict?

Background:

  • How has your construct been tested in the past? Include a focused review of the literature in this area, discussing information on specific measures.
  • Is there a need for your test? How will your test benefit society? How will your test be better or not better than previous tests.

Conceptualization:

  • What is the content of your test? Explain why it is covering this content.
  • Who are the proposed test-users? Be specific.
  • In what setting(s) will the test be used? Be specific.
  • Who are the proposed test-takers?
  • What cultural factors might affect test-taker response?

Be sure to respond to each question completely and provide your reasoning to demonstrate you understand the material. At the same time, be concise – 2 to 3 pages should be sufficient to address these questions. Be sure to appropriately give credit to your sources (e.g., APA style citations and references).

Example Test Development Part I Assignment (without title page or identifying information):   Test Development Project Example 1.pdf

Click the title above to submit the assignment. This assignment is due by Sunday.

Neuroplasticity: How do we learn?

Neuroplasticity: How do we learn?

1) The two videos below are short introduction to how the brain changes as we learn new things.  Pay attention to the new “roads” that are created as you start thinking about things differently or start doing things differently.  These “roads” are called neurological pathways, these are the connections between brain cells that allow us to store new experiences (learn new experiences) and later on act on them through behavior, thoughts and emotions.

Neuroplasticity (an overview) (2 minutes)

” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ELpfYCZa87gThis

​Neuroplasticity and learning explained (2:55)

” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88OL8NdkV-s

​What is neuroplasticity?

What are the 4 variables that can be changed in order to maximize the retainment of knowledge?

What is so important in taking breaks between leaning sessions, spacing our learning?

2) Our brain is made of nerve cells.  Neurons are the nerve cells responsible for receiving and sending information.  This is a neuron:

The neuron is composed of:

a. A body (Soma), where information is being processed, integrated and analyzed.  b. Dendrites, arm-like extensions that receive information from thei. outside environment such as outside temperature, smells, sights, things touching our skin, etc.),ii. internal environment of the body (pain in different part your body, what is your blood pressure, heart rate, internal temperature, how much oxygen you have in your blood, etc.),iii. and from other neurons c. An axon, a (usually) long “arm” that sends information to other neurons or other cells within the body.3) The video below gives an overview of how the brain forms memories through neurological pathways.  Pay close attention since the narrator has an Irish(?) accent and at times may be difficult to understand.

The learning Brain (7:00 minutes)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgLYkV689s4

How do adrenalin and cortisol affect the way we learn and behave?

What factors affect the ability of the brain to focus and learn successfully, behave and overall for the brain to function properly?

4) Watch the first 6:30 minutes of the video and answer the following questions:

What are the three ways by which the brain changes to support learning? Explain each one.

Lara Boyd: After watching this, your brain will not be the same (watch the first 6:30 minu

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNHBMFCzznE&t=451s

The Case of Lonnie and Dorothy

The Case of Lonnie and Dorothy

Individuals or families who need case management services do so because they have a number of problems. Like Lonnie and Dorothy, they may “get by” for a period of time. At some point, their problems escalate, multiply, or both, making it difficult to cope. It is at the end of this case, when Lonnie is beginning to experience some serious medical problems, that you enter their lives as a case manager.

Lonnie and Dorothy live in the southern part of town in a low-income area. At one time, the neighborhood was nice. This was long before Lonnie and Dorothy arrived. They have two grown sons, John and Leroy, who occasionally come by to visit, and a grown daughter they never talk to. Lonnie, 62, works at a nursing home as a janitor. Dorothy, 60, does not work due to health problems, though she has worked as a personal nurse at some time in the past. They have been married for thirty-nine years but do not get along very well. They bicker constantly, and Dorothy has talked of times when Lonnie would lock her in the house due to jealousy while he was at work. Now, they basically coexist together without much substantial interaction.

Lonnie’s job is rough on him—he works seven-day shifts and then has three days off. He drives forty-five minutes to work in his 1985 pickup, on which he is still making payments. He spends all day on his feet and is exhausted when he gets home. For years, Lonnie was the head janitor at a truck stop and enjoyed the job. Unfortunately, he was laid off due to cutbacks and has been trying to find a job with better pay. He has found that his age has kept him from getting better work. He has been working at the nursing home since. He has talked of finding better work, but because he and Dorothy live from paycheck to paycheck, they cannot afford for him to take any kind of pay cut, even temporarily. Lonnie spends most of his spare time in front of the television.

This is hard on Dorothy. Due to heart problems, she is on disability and rarely gets away from the house, often spending days alone in the house. This causes her to be lonely and to have a limited view of the world—the “other side of town” is like another world to her. If she does get away, it is only to go to the grocery store or the pharmacy. She also has a tendency to be paranoid. For instance, if her disability check does not come on the exact day it did the previous month, she spends the afternoon on the phone talking to the disability office and the post office, positive someone has “made a mistake” or has “taken her check.” In some ways this is understandable, since Lonnie and Dorothy need the check to pay their bills. Dorothy’s check pays the rent and what little spending money she gets, while Lonnie’s covers the car payment, food, utilities, and medical bills. They spend every penny each month, leaving nothing for savings. Last month, Lonnie started to have medical problems himself and has had to go the doctor more frequently than usual.

1. Identify the necessary case management roles and purposes for each of the three most important needs Lonnie and Dorothy have.