As noted in the text, the concept of affirmative action originated with President Lyndon Johnson’s issuance of Executive Order 11246 in 1964, the same year the landmark Civil Rights Act was enacted.

As noted in the text, the concept of affirmative action originated with President Lyndon Johnson’s issuance of Executive Order 11246 in 1964, the same year the landmark Civil Rights Act was enacted. While affirmative action has been upheld by courts in a number of cases, it has also been criticized and overturned in a number of decisions. 

  • What are the differences between a judicial (i.e.      court-ordered) affirmative action plan and a voluntary affirmative action      plan?