AMERICAN HISTORY (WRITING ASSIGNMENT)

Discuss in what ways the United States was an “unfinished nation,” and how the accomplishments of the Civil Rights era completed the process. In your opinion, is the United States currently a “finished nation” or is there still “unfinished business” that needs to be addressed?

800 WORDS  APA FORMAT  double-spaced and using a standard font of 12 points. All statements must be supported and all sources must be identified and cited, and included in your reference list.

I WILL PROVIDE ALL SOURCES IN CHAT.

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U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, SEVENTH EDITION DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF

 

 

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“Largely excluded from the prosperity of the 1950s, African Americans and Latinos undertook a series of grassroots efforts to gain the legal and social freedoms denied them by racism and, in the South, an entrenched system of segregation.”

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 The Civil Rights Movement  A Movement Becomes a Crusade  Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society  Youth Movements

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 The Changing South and African Americans • Mechanized cotton farming • Southern economy integrated • Decline in job opportunities for black southerners

 The NAACP and Civil Rights • Thurgood Marshall

 NAACP had chosen not to attack head-on the Supreme Court’s “separate but equal” decision in Plessy v. Ferguson

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 The Brown Decision • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

 NAACP in 1950 determined to attack “separate but equal”  Overturned Plessy

• Desegregation  To be carried out “with all deliberate speed”

• “Southern Manifesto”  Issued by 19 U.S. senators and 81 representatives to

reestablish legalized segregation

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 Latino Civil Rights • American GI Forum and League of United Latin American

Citizens (LULAC)  Supported legal challenges to school segregation

• Delgado and segregated schools  Delgado et al. v. Bastrop et al.

 Southwest states recognized just two races: black and white • Hernández v. Texas and desegregation

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“[Chief Justice Earl] Warren’s reasoning made it

possible for Latinos to seek redress as a group rather

than as individuals.”

 

 

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 A New Civil Rights Strategy • Rosa Parks

 Bus boycott • Martin Luther King Jr. • Nonviolence as a strategy

 Little Rock and the White Backlash • School integration

 Mob greeted nine black students; National Guard called in

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• Sit-ins

 Riding to Freedom • Newer civil rights organizations

 SCLC; CORE; SNCC • Freedom riders attacked

 Kennedy had hedged on promise of civil rights legislation

 Civil Rights at High Tide • James Meredith • “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • The march on Washington

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 The Fire Next Time • Tragedy in Dallas

 JFK assassinated, November 22, 1963 • LBJ and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Voting Rights Act of 1965

 Black Power • De facto segregation • Nation of Islam

 Malcolm X  Black Power

• Black Panthers

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 Violence in the Streets • Riots

 In Harlem; Rochester; Watts area of L.A.; Chicago; Newark; Detroit

 “We won because we made them pay attention to us.”

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• Johnson’s liberal faith

 The Origins of the Great Society • Discovering poverty

 Michael Harrington’s The Other America (1962)  Economic Opportunity Act, 1964

 The Election of 1964 • Promised a “Great Society”

 In which poverty and racial injustice no longer existed • Johnson won by a landslide

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 The Great Society • Programs in education • Medicare and Medicaid • Immigration reform

 Prejudice toward Latin Americans • The environment

 Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962)  National Wilderness Preservation System Act, 1964

• Evaluating the Great Society  High-water mark of interventionist government

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 The Reforms of the Warren Court • Protecting due process

 Right to legal counsel  Miranda rights

• Reflections of liberal social climate  Overturned ban on sale of contraceptives (Griswold)  Banning school prayer

• Principle of “one person, one vote”

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“Although Lyndon Johnson and Congress led the

liberal crusade in the 1960s, the Supreme Court

played an equally significant role.”

 

 

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 Activists on the New Left • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) • The Free Speech Movement • Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)

 Vatican II and American Catholics • Pope John XXIII and Vatican II

 Deal with issues of social change, such as poverty, nuclear war, atheism, and birth control

• Ecumenism  Catholics would seek understanding with other Christians

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 The Rise of the Counterculture • Spiritual matters aroused secular rebels

 Timothy Leary • Communes • Unconventional drugs • Ken Kesey (One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest) • Tom Wolfe (The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test)

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 The Rock Revolution • Bob Dylan • The Beatles • Soul music

 The West Coast Scene • West Coast importance in counterculture • The first “Be-In” • The Woodstock Music Festival (1969)

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