American History Essay

All information of the prompt is in the document provided. Please read the document correctly, the format is very important. I need a strong thesis, Chicago style paper, and footnotes must be included. NO outside sources!! Only use sources given in the document.


This final paper will present you with the widest variety of primary and secondary sources for you to choose from as you formulate a thesis. At this point, you have had plenty of practice analyzing and contextualizing sources. This paper is the closest to a research paper as you must choose which sources provide the best evidence for the thesis you are trying to defend.


· Name, Date and Panther ID in header, NO COVER PAGES or headings that take up half a page.

· Your paper must be 900-1200 words

· Times 12 pt font DOUBLE SPACED 1″ margins

· approx. 3-4 pages NOT including bibliography

· Chicago-style Bibliography on separate page

· Chicago-style footnote citations


· How did the threat of terrorism shape foreign and domestic policy in the first decade of the 21st century?

· The end of the Cold War saw unprecedented changes in the way the United States viewed itself and its standing in the world. The terror attacks on September 11th, 2001 was a paradigm shift for the United states. Using several primary and secondary sources, trace the origins of America’s shifting foreign and domestic policies before and after this momentous event.



· The thesis, or argument of your paper should be a detailed and specific answer to the above question, rooted in a close analysis of the primary sources and a clear explanation of the historical context drawn from the assigned secondary source readings. It should be at least one sentence and needs to be in your introduction.


Your paper must include an  introduction , several distinct body paragraphs , and a  conclusion .

Your  introduction  should not begin with an overly broad, general statement, but instead should introduce the specific time, place, and topic you are writing about. Do not assume that your reader knows anything about the history you are describing. Your introduction provides necessary context for the reader that informs your paper of how the issue that you will discuss in your thesis came to be. Good historical introductions do not need catchy hooks or buzzwords. You should really be introducing the reader to the historical causes of your thesis. Also, please be mindful that for this class, you should not be using footnotes in the introduction, as you have nothing to prove until you have revealed your thesis. The last sentence or sentences of you introduction must be your thesis. Your thesis must directly answer the prompt and also provide groupings of evidence that will preview the body paragraphs. Finishing your introduction with your thesis provides a natural springboard for the rest of your paper. Papers that do not have enough context or a sound thesis in their introduction will lose introduction, thesis, and structure points.

Your introduction must include

· a) historical context that provides the causes and context for the thesis

· b) a thesis statement that is the last sentence or sentences of your introduction that answers the prompt in way that does not repeat the prompt or is obvious, and

· c) provides an overview of how the remainder of your paper will be organized (a “roadmap” for your reader).

Your  body paragraphs a minimum of at least two, should each be organized around a main idea or focal point of evidence, and should each offer evidentiary analysis and contextualization to support your thesis. This is where you will be citing primary and secondary sources and including footnotes for the reader, properly sourcing your evidence. The best body paragraphs have topic sentences that introduce the main idea of the paragraph, and have transition sentences into the the next body paragraph. Papers that do not have distinct body paragraphs with clearly grouped evidence and ideas will lose structure and analysis points.

Your  conclusion  should summarize your arguments first, then it provides space to add to your paper. Start your conclusion by restating your thesis, and summarizing the main points made in your body paragraphs. A wise exercise is to find a parallel with another time period in history, and draw parallels and other conclusions, like similarities or differences. A conclusion is also an excellent place to present the reader with a rhetorical question, or suggest an alternate pathway of historical development given a change. Papers that do not have conclusions and end abruptly without at least a restatement of the thesis will lose structure points.


For this paper, you will be tasked with choosing your own primary sources, and therefore doing research that best supports your thesis. You will choose primary sources from either of two online repositories where you can find reliable sources related to the war on terror. You must use a minimum of 3 primary sources that you will use as evidence and cite throughout your paper. The  Yawp (Links to an external site.) , the text we have used this entire semester, remains your secondary source. For this Paper, you MUST read chapters 29 and 30 and you MUST cite the Yawp as a secondary source throughout your paper.


· 9/11 Memorial Museum Primary Sources (Links to an external site.)  – “These primary resources include speeches, executive orders, legislative acts and debates, government fact-finding and personal and collective memorialization. The resources will be routinely updated to offer an ever-expanding portrait of 9/11. Given the inherent sensitivities, certain documents may contain content that some may find offensive, but the information is included to provide as complete a record as possible.  (Links to an external site.) 

· War on Terror Primary Sources on Shmoop – (Links to an external site.)  Shmoop is a digital publishing company with a great collection of accessible primary sources relating to the War on Terror.


· American Yawp –  (Links to an external site.)  chapters on the Triumph of the Right and The Recent Past –  chapters 29 and 30


· This paper must include several footnotes and a separate bibliography on a new page to receive any points on the rubric for proper citation

Footnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources, they alert the reader of where a particular piece of information that is being used as evidence comes from. Usually you use them after you quote something directly or paraphrase something from a source. Please DO NOT use block quotes, or copy entire sentences or paragraphs from the sources, those are inappropriate citations for a paper of this length. Quotes should be used sparingly. Quote phrases, and ideally, paraphrase. Get in the habit of using your own words to describe and analyze sources and evidence. Please be mindful that paraphrasing also requires that you use footnotes

The Chicago style of citing we use requires footnotes (at the bottom, or the “foot” of the page) rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication. Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.


All papers in this course require a bibliography, also in Chicago-style, 12pt Times font, with 1″ margins. A bibliography is a list of the books and other sources that are referred to in a scholarly work-such as an essay, term paper, dissertation, or a book. The bibliography comes at the end of the work.

Your bibliography will be on its own separate page, functioning as the last page of all your papers. It will present a list of all the sources referenced in your paper in alphabetical order. Each source or book needs to be listed only once, no matter how many times it is cited in the footnotes of the paper.


All Papers will be graded along the guidelines of the attached rubric seen below. The four categories of points bear equal parts in the formulation of your grade.

In order to receive full credit, all of your papers must:

· be organized around a thesis, argument, point, or central claim.

· closely analyze and describe the assigned primary sources using specifics and details

· use the Yawp, our scholarly secondary source text for evidence about the historical context

· select and present evidence to prove a thesis in order to draw conclusions beyond those that are immediately obvious from the evidence

· have an introductory paragraph that provides historical context for the time period being analyzed, and presents its thesis as its last sentence

· be organized by having at least two body paragraphs that present the main evidence and support for the thesis, and a conclusion

· use correctly formatted footnote citations and include a bibliography