American History #6

What are the explanations that have been offered in support of dropping the atomic bomb? What is your response to these explanations? Make sure that you provide specific support from your readings.

STUDENT FEEDBACK WILL BE PROVIDE IN CHAT ONCE I RECEIVE THE ANSWER FROM THE QUESTION THAT’S POSTED.

I WILL ALSO PROVIDE LINKS TO COMPLETE QUESTION IN CHAT.

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U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, SEVENTH EDITION DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF

 

 

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“World War II deepened the global interdependence of nations and left the United States as the greatest economic and military power in the world.”

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The United States in a Troubled World A Global War War Production A Question of Rights Winning the War and the Peace

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• Pacific Interests • In assuming colonial control over the Philippines, Americans

acquired an interest in the western Pacific • Stimson Doctrine

• Policy of “nonrecognition”

• Becoming a Good Neighbor • Good Neighbor policy

• Pan Americanism; U.S. found a new willingness among Latin American nations to cooperate in matters of common defense

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The Diplomacy of Isolationism • The rise of fascism • Nye committee • Internationalists versus isolationists • Neutrality legislation

 Debate over the Neutrality Act of 1935 • Spanish Civil War • Cash-and-carry

 Belligerents could buy supplies other than munitions • Aggression in China

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 Inching toward War • Quarantine speech • Appeasement

 Became synonymous with betrayal, weakness, and surrender

Hitler’s Invasion • Germany begins World War II

 Invasion of Poland in 1939  Blitzkrieg: “lightning war”

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Retreat from Isolationism • Battle of Britain • Lend-Lease Act

 The U.S. as “the great arsenal of democracy”  Atlantic Charter

Disaster in the Pacific • Japanese expansion

 Entered Tripartite Pact • Pearl Harbor

 December 7, 1941

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Strategies for War • Defeat Germany first

 Outraged by the Pearl Harbor attack, many thought Japan should be the primary target

 Roosevelt and Churchill decided to fight the war in the Pacific as a holding action and defeat Germany first

Gloomy Prospects • U-boat war • Fall of the Philippines

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A Grand Alliance • The Big Three

 Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt • Operation Torch

 British and American forces to invade North Africa by the end of 1942

The Naval War in the Pacific • Midway

 Pivotal Allied victory at Midway, a small island guarding the approach west of Hawaii

• Guadalcanal

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Turning Points in Europe • Success in North Africa • Stalingrad

Those Who Fought • Army acted as a cultural melting pot • Soldiers found new educational opportunities and

job skills • Infantry suffered 90 percent of battlefield casualties

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“By the fall of 1942 Allied fortunes

brightened in the European war.”

 

 

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• Minorities at War • African Americans

• Service offered otherwise unavailable opportunities • Mexican Americans had a high enlistment rate • Chinese Americans served at highest rate of all • Filipinos

• Powerful reasons to enlist • Choices for Homosexuals

• Women at War • WACs and WAVEs

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• Mobilizing for War • Office of War Mobilization (OWM) • Auto factories retooled • Civilian volunteers

• Civil Defense; hospitals; scrap drives • Children: “Uncle Sam’s Scrappers” and “Tin-Can Colonels”

• Science Goes to War • Science and technology changed how war was fought • The Manhattan Project • Antibiotics; DDT; PVC

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War Work and Prosperity • Prosperity revived

 Hoboes of America; disabled workers • Tax Reform

 Revenue Act of 1942

Organized Labor • War Labor Board • Lewis leads a coal strike

 Despite incidents, workers remained dedicated to war effort

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• Women Workers • Womanpower fills the labor shortage

• With as many as 12 million men in uniform, women became largest untapped source of labor

• War inspired a change in economic roles for women without a revolution in attitudes about gender

• Birth rate began to rise with return of prosperity

• Mobility • Migration of workers to war industry locations

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• Italians and Asian Americans • “Aliens of enemy nationality”

• Restrictions on non-citizen Italians, Germans, and Japanese • Restrictions lifted on Italian aliens in 1942 • No such tolerance for Japanese

• Concentration Camps • Issei and Nisei • Executive Order 9066

• Entire Japanese community shipped to “assembly centers”

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• Minorities and War Work • A. Philip Randolph • Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)

• Established to enforce Executive Order 8802 barring discrimination in government and defense industry hiring

• Urban Unrest • Detroit race riot • Zoot suit riots • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) • Smith v. Allwright

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The New Deal in Retreat • Roosevelt wins a fourth term

 “Dr. Win-the-War”  Anti–New Deal coalition

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“The growing anti–New Deal coalition of Republicans and

rural Democrats saw in the war an opportunity to attack

programs they had long resented.”

 

 

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• The Fall of the Third Reich • D-Day

• June 6, 1944 • Battle of the Bulge

• December 1944: cost Germans their last reserves

• Two Roads to Tokyo • Westward advance along the northern coast of New Guinea

toward the Philippines and Tokyo • Naval forces under Admiral Nimitz to move up the island

chains of the Central Pacific • Battle of Leyte Gulf

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Big Three Diplomacy • Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union

 “Friendly” neighbors: regimes dependent on Moscow • “Four Policemen”

 Soviet Union, Great Britain, United States, and China to guarantee peace through military cooperation

The Road to Yalta • Teheran Conference • Yalta Conference

 Dispute over future of postwar Germany  Concessions to get Stalin to declare war on Japan

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• The Fallen Leader • Cerebral hemorrhage killed FDR: April 12, 1945 • Truman becomes president

• The Holocaust • Anti-Semitism • Systematic extermination

• Hitler ordered extermination of all European Jews; also Gypsies, homosexuals, and others considered “deviant”

• Until fall of 1941 Jews were permitted to leave Europe, but few countries would accept them

• Zionists

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A Lasting Peace • Dumbarton Oaks and the UNO • Potsdam Summit

 Two issues: Germany’s political fate, and how much Germany would pay in reparations

Atom Diplomacy • Should the bomb be dropped? • The bomb as a threat to the Soviets • Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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