American History

The tensions that arose between Great Britain and her North American colonies as a result of taxation and other measures that followed the Seven Years’ War culminated in war, a movement for independence and the establishment of a new nation. The ideals that fueled the Revolution were grounded in Enlightenment Era thought. These same ideals still shape our vision as we continue to define American Democracy.

How did the Enlightenment Era Thought influence the Declaration of Independence?

In your answer, be sure to address how political thought evolved during the Enlightenment Era and how those shifts are represented within the Declaration of Independence.

Students must respond to at least one fellow student’s posting explaining the reason(s) for their agreement or disagreement, with the arguments that have been presented. WHICH I WOULD PROVIDE IN CHAT.

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Chapter 17:Reconstructing theUnion1865–1877

U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, SEVENTH EDITION

DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF

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“The North, with its industrial might, would be the driving force in the nation’s economy and retain the dominant political voice. But would African Americans receive effective power? How would North and South readjust their economic and political relations? These questions lay at the heart of the problem of Reconstruction.”

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What’s to Come

  • Presidential Reconstruction
  • Congressional Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction in the South
  • Black Aspirations
  • The Abandonment of Reconstruction

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Presidential Reconstruction

  • Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan
  • Lincoln in 1863: Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction allowed states to organize a state government when 10 percent of qualified voters took oath of loyalty
  • Radical Republicans
  • Disagreed with leniency of the proposal
  • Wade-Davis Bill
  • Lincoln vetoed
  • President and Congress working out compromise when president assassinated

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Presidential Reconstruction

      • The mood of the South
      • Northerners concerned about the attitude of ex-Confederates
      • Lincoln’s death complicated the delicate task of dealing with southerners
      • Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson
      • Johnson’s character and values
      • Native southerner, but deeply disliked the planter class
      • Johnson’s program
      • Similar, but more lenient, than Lincoln’s plan

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Andrew Johnson's contentious personality masked a deep seated insecurity.

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    Presidential Reconstruction

        • The Failure of Johnson’s Program
        • Southern defiance
        • Black codes
        • Heavily restrictive laws against African Americans
        • Elections in the South
        • Returned ex-Confederates to power
        • Johnson’s resolve began to buckle

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    Presidential Reconstruction

        • Johnson’s Break with Congress
        • Issue of black rights drove wedge between president and Congress
        • Johnson’s vetoes
        • Aggravated tensions

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    Presidential Reconstruction

        • The Fourteenth Amendment
        1. amendment passed in Congress
        2. Provisions of the amendment
        • Broadened citizenship to include African Americans
        • Ratified in 1868 in spite of Johnson’s and most southern states’ opposition
        • The Election of 1866
        • Antiblack riots
        • Throughout the South, 1866
        • Repudiation of Johnson
        • Voters soundly repudiated Johnson

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    Congressional Reconstruction

          • Resistance of southern whites
          • Congressional Reconstruction: four acts in total
          • Southern states slowly readmitted
          • Post-Emancipation Societies in the Americas
          • United States and Haiti (1804) the only countries in the Americas where slavery destroyed by violence
          • United States unique in that suffrage granted almost immediately
          • Importance of the vision of Radical Republicans

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    Congressional Reconstruction

          • The Land Issue
          • Blacks’ desire for land
          • Failure of land redistribution
          • Rested on American belief in self-reliance
          • Impeachment
          • Tenure of Office Act
          • Used by Republicans to impeach the president
          • Johnson acquitted
          • May 1868: Senate acquitted the president, but only one vote short of conviction (36–19)

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    Facsimile of a ticket of admission to the  impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson

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      Map: The Southern States DuringReconstruction

      Map shows the southern states who were former confederate states and their dates of readmission to the union and redemption.

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        Reconstruction in the South

              • Black and White Republicans
              • Black men constituted 80 percent of Republicans in the South
              • Most black officeholders literate and came from top levels of black society
              • Black voters were a majority in only three southern states; Republicans therefore needed white votes
              • Such voters were largely yeoman farmers from the upland districts and “carpetbaggers” (northern transplants)
              • Divisions among southern Republicans

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        Reconstruction in the South

              • Reforms under the New State Governments
              • New state constitutions
              • Included many political and social reforms
              • Race and social equality
              • All granted political equality, but social equality was generally ignored
              • Economic Issues and Corruption
              • Southern economy in ruins
              • Corruption rampant and state debt skyrocketed

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        Black Aspirations

              • Experiencing Freedom
              • Changing employment
              • A big step for ex-slaves
              • Importance of names
              • Taking last names was a symbolic transition from slavery to freedom

        “Emancipation came to slaves in different ways and“Emancipation came to slaves in different ways and at different times…. Whatever the timing, freedomat different times…. Whatever the timing, freedom meant a host of precious blessings to people whomeant a host of precious blessings to people who had been in bondage all their lives.”had been in bondage all their lives.”

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        Benjamin Montgomery, a former slave, purchased Jefferson Davis’s plantation along the Mississippi River after the war.

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          Black Aspirations

                • The Black Family
                • Upholding the family
                • African Americans tried to strengthen families in freedom
                • Copied gender roles of white families
                • The Schoolhouse and the Church
                • Black education
                • A high priority
                • Teachers in black schools typically middle-class northern women
                • Independent black churches

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          Black Aspirations

                • New Working Conditions
                • Blacks asserted control over their work by refusing the work conditions of slaves
                • Sharecropping
                • Became the typical arrangement; often highly exploitative
                • The Freedmen’s Bureau
                • Mixed record
                • Mixed because of divergent racial attitudes of its agents
                • End of the Bureau
                1. signal of the North’s waning commitment to Reconstruction

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          Black Aspirations

                • Planters and a New Way of Life
                • Planters’ new values
                • Focused on economics

          “The old ideal of the paternalistic planter, which“The old ideal of the paternalistic planter, which required blacks to act subservient and grateful, gaverequired blacks to act subservient and grateful, gave way to an emphasis on strictly economicway to an emphasis on strictly economic relationships.”relationships.”

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          Map: Georgia Plantation afterthe War

          This map shows a side by side comparison of the plantation and its development after the war.

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            The Abandonment of Reconstruction

                  • The Grant Administration
                  • General Grant elected in 1868
                  • Fifteenth Amendment
                  • Ratified in 1870
                  • Granted suffrage to blacks, but contained loopholes
                  • Women’s suffrage rejected
                  • Disappointed by amendment’s silence on women’s suffrage
                  • Corruption rampant under Grant
                  • Reformers began to focus on cleaning up corruption rather than on blacks’ rights

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            The Abandonment of Reconstruction

                  • Growing Northern Disillusionment
                  • Civil Rights Act of 1875
                  • Last major piece of Reconstruction legislation
                  • Depression and Democratic resurgence
                  • Led to growing disinterest in issues of Reconstruction

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            The Abandonment of Reconstruction

                  • The Triumph of White Supremacy
                  • Racism
                  • Not dissipated by Reconstruction
                  • Contesting the night
                  • Rise of the Ku Klux Klan
                  • Mississippi Plan
                  • Bold effort by Democrats to use force to win the election

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            The Abandonment of Reconstruction

                  • The Disputed Election of 1876
                  • Compromise of 1877
                  • Election between Hayes and Tilden unresolved because of votes in only southern states still in Republican hands
                  • Compromise of 1877 made Hayes president
                  • Redeemers take control
                  • Democrats took control of remaining states in Confederacy

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            Map: Election of 1876

            Map illustrates the states electoral votes based on the parties at that time.

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              The Abandonment of Reconstruction

                    • Racism and the Failure of Reconstruction
                    • Reconstruction failed for many reasons, racism chief among them

              “By 1877 the entire South was in the hands of the“By 1877 the entire South was in the hands of the Redeemers, as they called themselves. ReconstructionRedeemers, as they called themselves. Reconstruction and Republican rule had come to an end.”and Republican rule had come to an end.”